Impact of stress-induced diabetes on outcomes in severely burned children

Celeste Finnerty, Arham Ali, Josef McLean, Nicole Benjamin, Robert P. Clayton, Clark R. Andersen, Ronald P. Mlcak, Oscar Suman, Walter Meyer, David Herndon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

25 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background Post-burn hyperglycemia leads to graft failure, multiple organ failure, and death. A hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp is used to keep serum glucose between 60 and 110 mg/dL. Because of frequent hypoglycemic episodes, a less-stringent sliding scale insulin protocol is used to maintain serum glucose levels between 80 and 160 mg/dL after elevations >180 mg/dL. Study Design We randomized pediatric patients with massive burns into 2 groups, patients receiving sliding scale insulin to lower blood glucose levels (n = 145) and those receiving no insulin (n = 98), to determine the differences in morbidity and mortality. Patients 0 to 18 years old with burns covering ≥30% of the total body surface area and not randomized to receive anabolic agents were included in this study. End points included glucose levels, infections, resting energy expenditure, lean body mass, bone mineral content, fat mass, muscle strength, and serum inflammatory cytokines, hormones, and liver enzymes. Results Maximal glucose levels occurred within 6 days of burn injury. Blood glucose levels were age dependent, with older children requiring more insulin (p < 0.05). Daily maximum and daily minimum, but not 6 am, glucose levels were significantly different based on treatment group (p < 0.05). Insulin significantly increased resting energy expenditure and improved bone mineral content (p < 0.05). Each additional wound infection increased incidence of hyperglycemia (p = 0.004). There was no mortality in patients not receiving insulin, only in patients who received insulin (p < 0.004). Muscle strength was increased in patients receiving insulin (p < 0.05). Conclusions Burn-induced hyperglycemia develops in a subset of severely burned children. Length of stay was reduced in the no insulin group, and there were no deaths in this group. Administration of insulin positively impacted bone mineral content and muscle strength, but increased resting energy expenditure, hypoglycemic episodes, and mortality. New glucose-lowering strategies might be needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)783-795
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of the American College of Surgeons
Volume218
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

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Insulin
Burns
Glucose
Muscle Strength
Hyperglycemia
Bone Density
Energy Metabolism
Hypoglycemic Agents
Blood Glucose
Mortality
Serum
Anabolic Agents
Glucose Clamp Technique
Multiple Organ Failure
Body Surface Area
Wound Infection
Length of Stay
Fats
Hormones
Pediatrics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

Cite this

Impact of stress-induced diabetes on outcomes in severely burned children. / Finnerty, Celeste; Ali, Arham; McLean, Josef; Benjamin, Nicole; Clayton, Robert P.; Andersen, Clark R.; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Suman, Oscar; Meyer, Walter; Herndon, David.

In: Journal of the American College of Surgeons, Vol. 218, No. 4, 2014, p. 783-795.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Finnerty, C, Ali, A, McLean, J, Benjamin, N, Clayton, RP, Andersen, CR, Mlcak, RP, Suman, O, Meyer, W & Herndon, D 2014, 'Impact of stress-induced diabetes on outcomes in severely burned children', Journal of the American College of Surgeons, vol. 218, no. 4, pp. 783-795. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2014.01.038
Finnerty, Celeste ; Ali, Arham ; McLean, Josef ; Benjamin, Nicole ; Clayton, Robert P. ; Andersen, Clark R. ; Mlcak, Ronald P. ; Suman, Oscar ; Meyer, Walter ; Herndon, David. / Impact of stress-induced diabetes on outcomes in severely burned children. In: Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 2014 ; Vol. 218, No. 4. pp. 783-795.
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abstract = "Background Post-burn hyperglycemia leads to graft failure, multiple organ failure, and death. A hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp is used to keep serum glucose between 60 and 110 mg/dL. Because of frequent hypoglycemic episodes, a less-stringent sliding scale insulin protocol is used to maintain serum glucose levels between 80 and 160 mg/dL after elevations >180 mg/dL. Study Design We randomized pediatric patients with massive burns into 2 groups, patients receiving sliding scale insulin to lower blood glucose levels (n = 145) and those receiving no insulin (n = 98), to determine the differences in morbidity and mortality. Patients 0 to 18 years old with burns covering ≥30{\%} of the total body surface area and not randomized to receive anabolic agents were included in this study. End points included glucose levels, infections, resting energy expenditure, lean body mass, bone mineral content, fat mass, muscle strength, and serum inflammatory cytokines, hormones, and liver enzymes. Results Maximal glucose levels occurred within 6 days of burn injury. Blood glucose levels were age dependent, with older children requiring more insulin (p < 0.05). Daily maximum and daily minimum, but not 6 am, glucose levels were significantly different based on treatment group (p < 0.05). Insulin significantly increased resting energy expenditure and improved bone mineral content (p < 0.05). Each additional wound infection increased incidence of hyperglycemia (p = 0.004). There was no mortality in patients not receiving insulin, only in patients who received insulin (p < 0.004). Muscle strength was increased in patients receiving insulin (p < 0.05). Conclusions Burn-induced hyperglycemia develops in a subset of severely burned children. Length of stay was reduced in the no insulin group, and there were no deaths in this group. Administration of insulin positively impacted bone mineral content and muscle strength, but increased resting energy expenditure, hypoglycemic episodes, and mortality. New glucose-lowering strategies might be needed.",
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T1 - Impact of stress-induced diabetes on outcomes in severely burned children

AU - Finnerty, Celeste

AU - Ali, Arham

AU - McLean, Josef

AU - Benjamin, Nicole

AU - Clayton, Robert P.

AU - Andersen, Clark R.

AU - Mlcak, Ronald P.

AU - Suman, Oscar

AU - Meyer, Walter

AU - Herndon, David

PY - 2014

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N2 - Background Post-burn hyperglycemia leads to graft failure, multiple organ failure, and death. A hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp is used to keep serum glucose between 60 and 110 mg/dL. Because of frequent hypoglycemic episodes, a less-stringent sliding scale insulin protocol is used to maintain serum glucose levels between 80 and 160 mg/dL after elevations >180 mg/dL. Study Design We randomized pediatric patients with massive burns into 2 groups, patients receiving sliding scale insulin to lower blood glucose levels (n = 145) and those receiving no insulin (n = 98), to determine the differences in morbidity and mortality. Patients 0 to 18 years old with burns covering ≥30% of the total body surface area and not randomized to receive anabolic agents were included in this study. End points included glucose levels, infections, resting energy expenditure, lean body mass, bone mineral content, fat mass, muscle strength, and serum inflammatory cytokines, hormones, and liver enzymes. Results Maximal glucose levels occurred within 6 days of burn injury. Blood glucose levels were age dependent, with older children requiring more insulin (p < 0.05). Daily maximum and daily minimum, but not 6 am, glucose levels were significantly different based on treatment group (p < 0.05). Insulin significantly increased resting energy expenditure and improved bone mineral content (p < 0.05). Each additional wound infection increased incidence of hyperglycemia (p = 0.004). There was no mortality in patients not receiving insulin, only in patients who received insulin (p < 0.004). Muscle strength was increased in patients receiving insulin (p < 0.05). Conclusions Burn-induced hyperglycemia develops in a subset of severely burned children. Length of stay was reduced in the no insulin group, and there were no deaths in this group. Administration of insulin positively impacted bone mineral content and muscle strength, but increased resting energy expenditure, hypoglycemic episodes, and mortality. New glucose-lowering strategies might be needed.

AB - Background Post-burn hyperglycemia leads to graft failure, multiple organ failure, and death. A hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp is used to keep serum glucose between 60 and 110 mg/dL. Because of frequent hypoglycemic episodes, a less-stringent sliding scale insulin protocol is used to maintain serum glucose levels between 80 and 160 mg/dL after elevations >180 mg/dL. Study Design We randomized pediatric patients with massive burns into 2 groups, patients receiving sliding scale insulin to lower blood glucose levels (n = 145) and those receiving no insulin (n = 98), to determine the differences in morbidity and mortality. Patients 0 to 18 years old with burns covering ≥30% of the total body surface area and not randomized to receive anabolic agents were included in this study. End points included glucose levels, infections, resting energy expenditure, lean body mass, bone mineral content, fat mass, muscle strength, and serum inflammatory cytokines, hormones, and liver enzymes. Results Maximal glucose levels occurred within 6 days of burn injury. Blood glucose levels were age dependent, with older children requiring more insulin (p < 0.05). Daily maximum and daily minimum, but not 6 am, glucose levels were significantly different based on treatment group (p < 0.05). Insulin significantly increased resting energy expenditure and improved bone mineral content (p < 0.05). Each additional wound infection increased incidence of hyperglycemia (p = 0.004). There was no mortality in patients not receiving insulin, only in patients who received insulin (p < 0.004). Muscle strength was increased in patients receiving insulin (p < 0.05). Conclusions Burn-induced hyperglycemia develops in a subset of severely burned children. Length of stay was reduced in the no insulin group, and there were no deaths in this group. Administration of insulin positively impacted bone mineral content and muscle strength, but increased resting energy expenditure, hypoglycemic episodes, and mortality. New glucose-lowering strategies might be needed.

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