Improving Dietary Protein Quality Reduces the Negative Effects of Physical Inactivity on Body Composition and Muscle Function

Emily J. Arentson-Lantz, Elfego Galvan, Jennifer Ellison, Adam Wacher, Douglas Paddon-Jones

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Brief periods of physical inactivity can compromise muscle health. Increasing dietary protein intake is potentially beneficial but complicated by difficulties reconciling anabolic potential with a realistic food volume and energy intake. We sought to determine whether increasing dietary protein quality could reduce the negative effects of physical inactivity. METHODS: Twenty healthy, older men and women completed 7 days of bed rest followed by 5 days of rehabilitation. Volunteers consumed a mixed macronutrient diet (MIXED: N = 10; 68 ± 2 years; 1,722 ± 29 kcal/day; 0.97 ± 0.01 g protein/kg/day) or an isoenergetic, whey-augmented, higher protein quality diet (WHEY: N = 10; 69 ± 1 years; 1,706 ± 23 kcal/day; 0.90 ± 0.01 g protein/kg/day). Outcomes included body composition, blood glucose, insulin, and a battery of physical function tests. RESULTS: During bed rest, both groups experienced a 20% reduction in knee extension peak torque (p < .05). The WHEY diet partially protected leg lean mass (-1,035 vs. -680 ± 138 g, MIXED vs. WHEY; p = .08) and contributed to a greater loss of body fat (-90 vs. -233 ± 152 g, MIXED vs. WHEY; p < .05). Following rehabilitation, knee extension peak torque in the WHEY group fully recovered (-10.0 vs. 2.2 ± 4.1 Nm, MIXED vs. WHEY; p = .05). Blood glucose, insulin, aerobic capacity, and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) changes were similar in both dietary conditions (p > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Improving protein quality without increasing total energy intake has the potential to partially counter some of the negative effects of bed rest in older adults.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1605-1611
Number of pages7
JournalThe journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences
Volume74
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 15 2019

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Dietary Proteins
Body Composition
Bed Rest
Muscles
Energy Intake
Proteins
Diet
Torque
Blood Glucose
Volunteers
Knee
Rehabilitation
Eating
Insulin
Health

Keywords

  • Atrophy
  • Bed rest
  • Nutrition
  • Whey protein

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aging
  • Geriatrics and Gerontology

Cite this

Improving Dietary Protein Quality Reduces the Negative Effects of Physical Inactivity on Body Composition and Muscle Function. / Arentson-Lantz, Emily J.; Galvan, Elfego; Ellison, Jennifer; Wacher, Adam; Paddon-Jones, Douglas.

In: The journals of gerontology. Series A, Biological sciences and medical sciences, Vol. 74, No. 10, 15.09.2019, p. 1605-1611.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "BACKGROUND: Brief periods of physical inactivity can compromise muscle health. Increasing dietary protein intake is potentially beneficial but complicated by difficulties reconciling anabolic potential with a realistic food volume and energy intake. We sought to determine whether increasing dietary protein quality could reduce the negative effects of physical inactivity. METHODS: Twenty healthy, older men and women completed 7 days of bed rest followed by 5 days of rehabilitation. Volunteers consumed a mixed macronutrient diet (MIXED: N = 10; 68 ± 2 years; 1,722 ± 29 kcal/day; 0.97 ± 0.01 g protein/kg/day) or an isoenergetic, whey-augmented, higher protein quality diet (WHEY: N = 10; 69 ± 1 years; 1,706 ± 23 kcal/day; 0.90 ± 0.01 g protein/kg/day). Outcomes included body composition, blood glucose, insulin, and a battery of physical function tests. RESULTS: During bed rest, both groups experienced a 20{\%} reduction in knee extension peak torque (p < .05). The WHEY diet partially protected leg lean mass (-1,035 vs. -680 ± 138 g, MIXED vs. WHEY; p = .08) and contributed to a greater loss of body fat (-90 vs. -233 ± 152 g, MIXED vs. WHEY; p < .05). Following rehabilitation, knee extension peak torque in the WHEY group fully recovered (-10.0 vs. 2.2 ± 4.1 Nm, MIXED vs. WHEY; p = .05). Blood glucose, insulin, aerobic capacity, and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) changes were similar in both dietary conditions (p > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Improving protein quality without increasing total energy intake has the potential to partially counter some of the negative effects of bed rest in older adults.",
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AB - BACKGROUND: Brief periods of physical inactivity can compromise muscle health. Increasing dietary protein intake is potentially beneficial but complicated by difficulties reconciling anabolic potential with a realistic food volume and energy intake. We sought to determine whether increasing dietary protein quality could reduce the negative effects of physical inactivity. METHODS: Twenty healthy, older men and women completed 7 days of bed rest followed by 5 days of rehabilitation. Volunteers consumed a mixed macronutrient diet (MIXED: N = 10; 68 ± 2 years; 1,722 ± 29 kcal/day; 0.97 ± 0.01 g protein/kg/day) or an isoenergetic, whey-augmented, higher protein quality diet (WHEY: N = 10; 69 ± 1 years; 1,706 ± 23 kcal/day; 0.90 ± 0.01 g protein/kg/day). Outcomes included body composition, blood glucose, insulin, and a battery of physical function tests. RESULTS: During bed rest, both groups experienced a 20% reduction in knee extension peak torque (p < .05). The WHEY diet partially protected leg lean mass (-1,035 vs. -680 ± 138 g, MIXED vs. WHEY; p = .08) and contributed to a greater loss of body fat (-90 vs. -233 ± 152 g, MIXED vs. WHEY; p < .05). Following rehabilitation, knee extension peak torque in the WHEY group fully recovered (-10.0 vs. 2.2 ± 4.1 Nm, MIXED vs. WHEY; p = .05). Blood glucose, insulin, aerobic capacity, and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) changes were similar in both dietary conditions (p > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Improving protein quality without increasing total energy intake has the potential to partially counter some of the negative effects of bed rest in older adults.

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