In vitro cytotoxicity of Manville Code 100 glass fibers

Effect of fiber length on human alveolar macrophages

Patti C. Zeidler-Erdely, William Calhoun, Bill Ameredes, Melissa P. Clark, Gregory J. Deye, Paul Baron, William Jones, Terri Blake, Vincent Castranova

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

23 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs) are inorganic noncrystalline materials widely used in residential and industrial settings for insulation, filtration, and reinforcement purposes. SVFs conventionally include three major categories: fibrous glass, rock/slag/ stone (mineral) wool, and ceramic fibers. Previous in vitro studies from our laboratory demonstrated length-dependent cytotoxic effects of glass fibers on rat alveolar macrophages which were possibly associated with incomplete phagocytosis of fibers ≥ 17 μm in length. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of fiber length on primary human alveolar macrophages, which are larger in diameter than rat macrophages, using length-classified Manville Code 100 glass fibers (8, 10, 16, and 20 μm). It was hypothesized that complete engulfment of fibers by human alveolar macrophages could decrease fiber cytotoxicity;, i.e. shorter fibers that can be completely engulfed might not be as cytotoxic as longer fibers. Human alveolar macrophages, obtained by segmental bronchoalveolar lavage of healthy, non-smoking volunteers, were treated with three different concentrations (determined by fiber number) of the sized fibers in vitro. Cytotoxicity was assessed by monitoring cytosolic lactate dehydrogenase release and loss of function as indicated by a decrease in zymosan-stimulated chemiluminescence. Results: Microscopic analysis indicated that human alveolar macrophages completely engulfed glass fibers of the 20 μm length. All fiber length fractions tested exhibited equal cytotoxicity on a per fiber basis, i.e. increasing lactate dehydrogenase and decreasing chemiluminescence in the same concentration-dependent fashion. Conclusion: The data suggest that due to the larger diameter of human alveolar macrophages, compared to rat alveolar macrophages, complete phagocytosis of longer fibers can occur with the human cells. Neither incomplete phagocytosis nor length-dependent toxicity was observed in fiber-exposed human macrophage cultures. In contrast, rat macrophages exhibited both incomplete phagocytosis of long fibers and length-dependent toxicity. The results of the human and rat cell studies suggest that incomplete engulfment may enhance cytotoxicity of fiber glass. However, the possibility should not be ruled out that differences between human versus rat macrophages other than cell diameter could account for differences in fiber effects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5
JournalParticle and Fibre Toxicology
Volume3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 28 2006
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Alveolar Macrophages
Cytotoxicity
Fibers
Phagocytosis
Rats
Macrophages
Ceramic fibers
Luminescence
L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
Chemiluminescence
Synthetic fibers
fiberglass
In Vitro Techniques
Zymosan
Toxicity
Ceramics
Bronchoalveolar Lavage
Glass
Volunteers
Wool fibers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Toxicology

Cite this

In vitro cytotoxicity of Manville Code 100 glass fibers : Effect of fiber length on human alveolar macrophages. / Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C.; Calhoun, William; Ameredes, Bill; Clark, Melissa P.; Deye, Gregory J.; Baron, Paul; Jones, William; Blake, Terri; Castranova, Vincent.

In: Particle and Fibre Toxicology, Vol. 3, 5, 28.03.2006.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C. ; Calhoun, William ; Ameredes, Bill ; Clark, Melissa P. ; Deye, Gregory J. ; Baron, Paul ; Jones, William ; Blake, Terri ; Castranova, Vincent. / In vitro cytotoxicity of Manville Code 100 glass fibers : Effect of fiber length on human alveolar macrophages. In: Particle and Fibre Toxicology. 2006 ; Vol. 3.
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abstract = "Background: Synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs) are inorganic noncrystalline materials widely used in residential and industrial settings for insulation, filtration, and reinforcement purposes. SVFs conventionally include three major categories: fibrous glass, rock/slag/ stone (mineral) wool, and ceramic fibers. Previous in vitro studies from our laboratory demonstrated length-dependent cytotoxic effects of glass fibers on rat alveolar macrophages which were possibly associated with incomplete phagocytosis of fibers ≥ 17 μm in length. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of fiber length on primary human alveolar macrophages, which are larger in diameter than rat macrophages, using length-classified Manville Code 100 glass fibers (8, 10, 16, and 20 μm). It was hypothesized that complete engulfment of fibers by human alveolar macrophages could decrease fiber cytotoxicity;, i.e. shorter fibers that can be completely engulfed might not be as cytotoxic as longer fibers. Human alveolar macrophages, obtained by segmental bronchoalveolar lavage of healthy, non-smoking volunteers, were treated with three different concentrations (determined by fiber number) of the sized fibers in vitro. Cytotoxicity was assessed by monitoring cytosolic lactate dehydrogenase release and loss of function as indicated by a decrease in zymosan-stimulated chemiluminescence. Results: Microscopic analysis indicated that human alveolar macrophages completely engulfed glass fibers of the 20 μm length. All fiber length fractions tested exhibited equal cytotoxicity on a per fiber basis, i.e. increasing lactate dehydrogenase and decreasing chemiluminescence in the same concentration-dependent fashion. Conclusion: The data suggest that due to the larger diameter of human alveolar macrophages, compared to rat alveolar macrophages, complete phagocytosis of longer fibers can occur with the human cells. Neither incomplete phagocytosis nor length-dependent toxicity was observed in fiber-exposed human macrophage cultures. In contrast, rat macrophages exhibited both incomplete phagocytosis of long fibers and length-dependent toxicity. The results of the human and rat cell studies suggest that incomplete engulfment may enhance cytotoxicity of fiber glass. However, the possibility should not be ruled out that differences between human versus rat macrophages other than cell diameter could account for differences in fiber effects.",
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AU - Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C.

AU - Calhoun, William

AU - Ameredes, Bill

AU - Clark, Melissa P.

AU - Deye, Gregory J.

AU - Baron, Paul

AU - Jones, William

AU - Blake, Terri

AU - Castranova, Vincent

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