In vitro molecular mechanisms of bisphenol A action

Yelena B. Wetherill, Benson T. Akingbemi, Jun Kanno, John A. McLachlan, Angel Nadal, Carlos Sonnenschein, Cheryl S. Watson, R. Thomas Zoeller, Scott M. Belcher

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

776 Scopus citations


Bisphenol A (BPA, 2,2-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) propane; CAS# 80-05-7) is a chemical used primarily in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic, epoxy resins and as a non-polymer additive to other plastics. Recent evidence has demonstrated that human and wildlife populations are exposed to levels of BPA which cause adverse reproductive and developmental effects in a number of different wildlife species and laboratory animal models. However, there are major uncertainties surrounding the spectrum of BPA's mechanisms of action, the tissue-specific impacts of exposures, and the critical windows of susceptibility during which target tissues are sensitive to BPA exposures. As a foundation to address some of those uncertainties, this review was prepared by the "In vitro" expert sub-panel assembled during the "Bisphenol A: An Examination of the Relevance of Ecological, In vitro and Laboratory Animal Studies for Assessing Risks to Human Health" workshop held in Chapel Hill, NC, Nov 28-29, 2006. The specific charge of this expert panel was to review and assess the strength of the published literature pertaining to the mechanisms of BPA action. The resulting document is a detailed review of published studies that have focused on the mechanistic basis of BPA action in diverse experimental models and an assessment of the strength of the evidence regarding the published BPA research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)178-198
Number of pages21
JournalReproductive Toxicology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2007


  • Allergic resonse
  • Androgen receptor
  • Bisphenol A (BPA, 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) propane
  • Cell specificity
  • Endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC)
  • Endocrine disruption
  • Estrogen receptor
  • Expert panel review
  • GPR30
  • Immune system
  • In vitro mechanisms
  • Non-classical membrane estrogen receptor
  • Rapid signaling
  • Thyroid hormone
  • Thyroid receptor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology


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