Background: The purpose of this study was to examine temporal nationwide utilization patterns and predictors for use of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) among patients diagnosed with bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: A total of 36,855 patients aged 66 years or older diagnosed with clinical stage TI-IV, N0M0 bladder cancer from 2004 to 2011 were analyzed. We used multivariable logistic regression analyses to discern factors associated with receipt of imaging within 12 months from diagnosis. The Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to determine changes in the proportion of patients receiving imaging after cancer diagnosis. Results: Independent of clinical stage, there was marked increase in use of PET/CT throughout the study period (2011 vs. 2004: odds ratio, 17.55; 95% confidence interval, 10.14-30.38; P < .001). Although use of CT imaging remained stable during the study period, there was significantly decreased utilization of MRI (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-0.75; P < .001) in 2011 versus 2004. The mean incremental cost of PET/CT versus CT and MRI was $1040 and $612 (in 2016 dollars), respectively. Extrapolating these findings to the patients with bladder cancer in the United States results in excess spending of $11.6 million for PET/CT imaging. Conclusion: We identified rapid adoption of PET/CT imaging independent of clinical stage, resulting in excess national spending of $11.6 million for this imaging modality alone. Further value-based research discerning the clinical versus economic benefits of advanced imaging among patients with bladder cancer are needed.
- Bladder cancer
- Positron emission tomography-computed tomography
ASJC Scopus subject areas