Independent evolution of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance mutations in diverse areas of the brain in HIV-infected patients, with and without dementia, on antiretroviral treatment

Theresa K. Smit, Bruce J. Brew, Wallace Tourtellotte, Susan Morgello, Benjamin B. Gelman, Nitin K. Saksena

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

100 Scopus citations

Abstract

AIDS dementia complex (ADC) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients continues to be a problem in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A better understanding of the drug resistance mutation patterns that emerge in the central nervous system (CNS) during HAART is of paramount importance as these differences in drug resistance mutations may explain underlying reasons for poor penetration of antiretroviral drugs into the CNS and suboptimal concentrations of the drugs that may reside in the brains of HIV-infected individuals during therapy. Thus, we provide a detailed analysis of HIV type 1 (HIV-1) protease and reverse transcriptase (RT) genes derived from different regions of the brains of 20 HIV-1-infected patients (5 without ADC, 2 with probable ADC, and 13 with various stages of ADC) on antiretroviral therapy. We show the compartmentalization and independent evolution of both primary and secondary drug resistance mutations to both RT and protease inhibitors in diverse regions of the CNS of HIV-infected patients, with and without dementia, on antiretroviral therapy. Our results suggest that the independent evolution of drug resistance mutations in diverse areas of the CNS may emerge as a consequence of incomplete suppression of HIV, probably related to suboptimal drug levels in the CNS and drug selection pressure. The emergence of resistant virus in the CNS may have considerable influence on the outcome of neurologic disease and also the reseeding of HIV in the systemic circulation upon failure of therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10133-10148
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of virology
Volume78
Issue number18
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Insect Science
  • Virology

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