Induction of Interleukin 3 and Tumor Resistance by SSM, a Cancer Immunotherapeutic Agent Extracted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Hidetaka Sasaki, David Schmitt, Richard B. Pollard, Fujio Suzuki, Yoshiro Hayashi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Scopus citations


Interleukin 3 (IL-3) activity was demonstrated when inguinal lymph node cells obtained from Bacillus Calmette-Guérin-sensitued mice (BCG-ILNQ were stimulated in vitro with SSM, an immunomodulator extracted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The IL-3 activity was first detected on Day 1 in culture fluids of BCG-ILNC stimulated with SSM, reached a peak on Day 3, and then gradually decreased. The activity was completely neutralized by treatment with anti-murine IL-3 monoclonal antibody (mAb). When BCG-ILNC were treated with anti-Thy 1.2 or anti-Lyt 1.2 mAb followed by complement, IL-3 was not produced in the culture fluids. However, IL-3 in the culture fluids was detected when BCG-ILNC were treated with anti-Lyt 2.2 mAb, anti-asialo-GM,, or anti-mouse immunoglobulin antiserum followed by complement. These results suggested that Lyt 1+ T-cells appeared to be required for the production of IL-3 from BCG-ILNC stimulated with SSM. In addition, low but significant IL-3 activity was also observed in sera of mice treated with SSM. However, serum IL-3 activity was not detected in mice treated with both SSM and Thy 1.2 or Lyt 1.2 mAb, whereas the activity was induced by SSM in mice treated with anti-Lyt 2.2 mAb or anti-asialo-GM, antiserum. On the other hand, the in vivo growth of IMC tumors inoculated in BALB/c x DBA/2 Fi mice was significantly decreased by intralesional injection of culture fluids containing IL-3, as well as by SSM itself. This antitumor activity of the culture fluids was not altered when it was treated with mAbs for interleukin 1, interleukin 2, or anti-mouse J-interferon antiserum. The antitumor activity of the fluid was only eliminated when it was treated with anti-mouse IL-3 mAb. Since nonspecific resistance to tumors in mice stimulated with SSM appears to require Lyt 1+ T-cells, these results suggest that, in part, nonspecific resistance to tumors of mice stimulated with SSM may be developed through IL-3, which was produced by Lyt 1+ T-cells after SSM stimulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4032-4037
Number of pages6
JournalCancer Research
Issue number13
StatePublished - Jul 1 1990

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


Dive into the research topics of 'Induction of Interleukin 3 and Tumor Resistance by SSM, a Cancer Immunotherapeutic Agent Extracted from Mycobacterium tuberculosis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this