Passive antibody to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) acquired through colostrum intake may interfere with the development of a protective immune response by calves to this virus. The objective of this study was to determine if calves, with a high level of maternal antibody to bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), develop CD4+, CD8+, or γδ T lymphocyte responses to BVDV in the absence of a measurable humoral immune response. Colostrum or milk replacer fed calves were challenged with virulent BVDV at 2-5 weeks of age and/or after maternal antibody had waned. Calves exposed to BVDV while passive antibody levels were high did not mount a measurable humoral immune response to BVDV. However, compared to nonexposed animals, these animals had CD4+, CD8+, and γδ T lymphocytes that were activated by BVDV after exposure to in vitro BVDV. The production of IFNγ by lymphocytes after in vitro BVDV exposure was also much greater in lymphocytes from calves exposed to BVDV in the presence of maternal antibody compared to the nonexposed calves. These data indicate that calves exposed to BVDV while maternal antibody levels are high can develop antigen specific CD4+, CD8+, and γδ T lymphocytes in the absence of an active antibody response. A manuscript presented separately demonstrates that the calves with T lymphocytes specific for BVDV in this study were also protected from virulent BVDV genotype 2 challenge after maternal antibody became undetectable.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Medicine