Inflammatory burden and amino acid metabolism in cancer cachexia

William J. Durham, Edgar Lichar Dillon, Melinda Sheffield-Moore

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

64 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose of review: Cancer cachexia is associated with marked alterations in skeletal muscle protein metabolism that lead to muscle wasting and, in some cases, death. The inflammatory response elicited by cancer is a likely, if not primary, mediator of these alterations. This review focuses on the possible relationship between inflammatory signaling and altered amino acid metabolism in cancer. Recent findings: Loss of skeletal muscle in cancer patients can potentially be due to anorexia and early satiety, reduced muscle protein synthesis, and/or increased muscle protein breakdown. Inflammation has been associated with each of these mechanisms. Effects on appetite appear to be mediated by the melanocortin system in the hypothalamus. Studies in animal models of cachexia suggest that modulation of orexigenic and anorexigenic pathways in this system may improve nutrient consumption. Inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α are likely to contribute to the effects of inflammation on muscle protein metabolism through several pathways. Summary: Limited studies in humans suggest that targeted anti-inflammatory and nutritional interventions may ameliorate the net catabolic effect on skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Future studies of the precise mechanism of muscle protein loss, as well as novel or combination therapies to inhibit inflammation and promote anabolism, are warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)72-77
Number of pages6
JournalCurrent Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2009

Keywords

  • Amino acid
  • Ubiquitin proteasome pathway

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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