Inflammatory burden and amino acid metabolism in cancer cachexia

William J. Durham, Edgar Dillon, Melinda Sheffield-Moore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

56 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose of review: Cancer cachexia is associated with marked alterations in skeletal muscle protein metabolism that lead to muscle wasting and, in some cases, death. The inflammatory response elicited by cancer is a likely, if not primary, mediator of these alterations. This review focuses on the possible relationship between inflammatory signaling and altered amino acid metabolism in cancer. Recent findings: Loss of skeletal muscle in cancer patients can potentially be due to anorexia and early satiety, reduced muscle protein synthesis, and/or increased muscle protein breakdown. Inflammation has been associated with each of these mechanisms. Effects on appetite appear to be mediated by the melanocortin system in the hypothalamus. Studies in animal models of cachexia suggest that modulation of orexigenic and anorexigenic pathways in this system may improve nutrient consumption. Inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α are likely to contribute to the effects of inflammation on muscle protein metabolism through several pathways. Summary: Limited studies in humans suggest that targeted anti-inflammatory and nutritional interventions may ameliorate the net catabolic effect on skeletal muscle protein metabolism. Future studies of the precise mechanism of muscle protein loss, as well as novel or combination therapies to inhibit inflammation and promote anabolism, are warranted.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)72-77
Number of pages6
JournalCurrent Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2009

Fingerprint

Cachexia
Muscle Proteins
Amino Acids
Neoplasms
Skeletal Muscle
Inflammation
Muscle Neoplasms
Melanocortins
Anorexia
Appetite
Hypothalamus
Interleukin-6
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Animal Models
Cytokines
Food
Muscles

Keywords

  • Amino acid
  • Ubiquitin proteasome pathway

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

Inflammatory burden and amino acid metabolism in cancer cachexia. / Durham, William J.; Dillon, Edgar; Sheffield-Moore, Melinda.

In: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care, Vol. 12, No. 1, 01.2009, p. 72-77.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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