Influence of Sex and Age on Inpatient Rehabilitation Outcomes Among Older Adults With Traumatic Brain Injury

James E. Graham, Dawn M. Radice-Neumann, Timothy A. Reistetter, Flora M. Hammond, Marcel Dijkers, Carl V. Granger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

29 Scopus citations


Graham JE, Radice-Neumann DM, Reistetter TA, Hammond FM, Dijkers M, Granger CV. Influence of sex and age on inpatient rehabilitation outcomes among older adults with traumatic brain injury. Objective: To assess the influence of sex and age on inpatient rehabilitation outcomes in a large national sample of older adults with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design: Prospective case series. Setting: Eight hundred forty-eight inpatient rehabilitation facilities that subscribe to the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation. Participants: Patients (n=18,413) age 65 years and older admitted for inpatient rehabilitation after TBI from 2005 through 2007. Interventions: None. Main Outcome Measures: Rehabilitation length of stay, discharge FIM motor and cognitive ratings, discharge setting, and scheduled home health services at discharge. Results: Mean age ± SD of the sample was 79±7 years, and 47% were women. In multivariable models, higher age was associated with shorter lengths of stay (P<.001), lower discharge FIM motor and cognitive ratings (P<.001), and greater odds of home health services at discharge (P<.001). Women demonstrated shorter lengths of stay (P=.006) and greater odds of being scheduled for home health services at discharge (P<.001) than men. The sex-by-age interaction term was not significant in any outcome model. Sex differences and trends were consistent across the entire age range of the sample. Conclusions: Sex and age patterns in rehabilitation outcomes among older adults with TBI varied by outcome. The current findings related to rehabilitation length of stay may be helpful for facility-level resource planning. Additional studies are warranted to identify the factors associated with returning to home and to assess the long-term benefits of combined inpatient rehabilitation and home health services for older adults with TBI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)43-50
Number of pages8
JournalArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2010



  • Aged
  • Brain injuries
  • Rehabilitation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation

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