Colon cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women worldwide. The deregulated cell cycle control or decreased apoptosis of normal epithelial cells leading to uncontrolled proliferation is one of the major features of tumor progression. We have previously shown that aldose reductase (AR), a NADPHdependent aldo-keto reductase, has been shown to be involved in growth factor-induced proliferation of colon cancer cells. Herein, we report that inhibition of AR prevents epidermal growth factor (EGF)- and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)-induced HT29 cell proliferation by accumulating cells at G1 phase of cell cycle. Similar results were observed in SW480 and HCT-116 colon cancer cells. Treatment of HT29 cells with AR inhibitor, sorbinil or zopolrestat, prevented the EGF- and bFGF-induced DNA binding activity of E2F-1 and phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. Inhibition of AR also prevented EGF- and bFGF-induced phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk)-2 and expression of G1-S transition regulatory proteins such as cyclin Dl, cdk4, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin E, and c-myc. More importantly, inhibition of AR prevented the EGF- and bFGF-induced activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT and reactive oxygen species generation in colon cancer cells. Further, inhibition of AR also prevented the tumor growth of human colon cancer cells in nude mouse xenografts. Collectively, these results show that AR mediates EGF- and bFGF-induced colon cancer cell proliferation by activating or expressing G1-S phase proteins such as E2F-1, cdks, and cyclins through the reactive oxygen species/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway, indicating the use of AR inhibitors in the prevention of colon carcinogenesis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research