Innate gastrointestinal immunity: Characterization of broadly active viral inhibitors

Indra P. Singh, Dorian H. Coppenhaver, Ashok Chopra, Samuel Baron

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Innate viral inhibitors that are broadly active have been characterized in the serum and the nervous system, but incompletely characterized in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. GI preparations from porcine gastric mucosa, mouse intestine, and in neuramide (a pharmaceutical product), were examined for broad antiviral activity, molecular size and mechanism of action for comparison with the previously characterized, innate inhibitors in the serum and nervous system. The GI inhibitors were found to be active in high titers against RNA and DNA viruses, resistant to proteolysis, glycolysis, lipid extraction and possessed differing mechanisms of action. The mouse intestinal inhibitor prevented virus attachment to cells, and neuramide acted at an early post-attachment stage of virus multiplication. The porcine mucosal inhibitor acted as late as 6 h after initiation of the multiplication cycle. These broadly active GI inhibitors differed from the previously described serum inhibitor (UTIβ) high density lipoproteins (HDL) and the nervous system (NS) inhibitor by being smaller (600 ± 400 kDa) and resistant to proteinase K, glycosidases and organic solvents. The mouse intestinal inhibitor acts similarly to UTIβ and NS inhibitor by preventing attachment of virus to the cells. In comparison, the neuramide and the porcine mucosal inhibitor, like HDL, acted after attachment to the target cells. The innate nonspecific, broadly-active virus inhibitors, based on high titers and location, are considered important initial immune defense mechanisms against viral infections and thus potentially useful in medical applications.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)157-167
Number of pages11
JournalAntiviral Research
Volume49
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - 2001

Fingerprint

Virus Attachment
Innate Immunity
Nervous System
Swine
HDL Lipoproteins
Serum
Endopeptidase K
DNA Viruses
Glycoside Hydrolases
RNA Viruses
Glycolysis
Virus Diseases
Gastric Mucosa
Proteolysis
Intestines
Antiviral Agents
Gastrointestinal Tract
Viruses
Lipids
Pharmaceutical Preparations

Keywords

  • Innate immunity
  • Intestinal defense
  • Intestinal virus inhibitors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Innate gastrointestinal immunity : Characterization of broadly active viral inhibitors. / Singh, Indra P.; Coppenhaver, Dorian H.; Chopra, Ashok; Baron, Samuel.

In: Antiviral Research, Vol. 49, No. 3, 2001, p. 157-167.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Singh, Indra P. ; Coppenhaver, Dorian H. ; Chopra, Ashok ; Baron, Samuel. / Innate gastrointestinal immunity : Characterization of broadly active viral inhibitors. In: Antiviral Research. 2001 ; Vol. 49, No. 3. pp. 157-167.
@article{fa709e0efcef42cdaddbbf69874889de,
title = "Innate gastrointestinal immunity: Characterization of broadly active viral inhibitors",
abstract = "Innate viral inhibitors that are broadly active have been characterized in the serum and the nervous system, but incompletely characterized in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. GI preparations from porcine gastric mucosa, mouse intestine, and in neuramide (a pharmaceutical product), were examined for broad antiviral activity, molecular size and mechanism of action for comparison with the previously characterized, innate inhibitors in the serum and nervous system. The GI inhibitors were found to be active in high titers against RNA and DNA viruses, resistant to proteolysis, glycolysis, lipid extraction and possessed differing mechanisms of action. The mouse intestinal inhibitor prevented virus attachment to cells, and neuramide acted at an early post-attachment stage of virus multiplication. The porcine mucosal inhibitor acted as late as 6 h after initiation of the multiplication cycle. These broadly active GI inhibitors differed from the previously described serum inhibitor (UTIβ) high density lipoproteins (HDL) and the nervous system (NS) inhibitor by being smaller (600 ± 400 kDa) and resistant to proteinase K, glycosidases and organic solvents. The mouse intestinal inhibitor acts similarly to UTIβ and NS inhibitor by preventing attachment of virus to the cells. In comparison, the neuramide and the porcine mucosal inhibitor, like HDL, acted after attachment to the target cells. The innate nonspecific, broadly-active virus inhibitors, based on high titers and location, are considered important initial immune defense mechanisms against viral infections and thus potentially useful in medical applications.",
keywords = "Innate immunity, Intestinal defense, Intestinal virus inhibitors",
author = "Singh, {Indra P.} and Coppenhaver, {Dorian H.} and Ashok Chopra and Samuel Baron",
year = "2001",
doi = "10.1016/S0166-3542(00)00140-6",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "49",
pages = "157--167",
journal = "Antiviral Research",
issn = "0166-3542",
publisher = "Elsevier",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Innate gastrointestinal immunity

T2 - Characterization of broadly active viral inhibitors

AU - Singh, Indra P.

AU - Coppenhaver, Dorian H.

AU - Chopra, Ashok

AU - Baron, Samuel

PY - 2001

Y1 - 2001

N2 - Innate viral inhibitors that are broadly active have been characterized in the serum and the nervous system, but incompletely characterized in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. GI preparations from porcine gastric mucosa, mouse intestine, and in neuramide (a pharmaceutical product), were examined for broad antiviral activity, molecular size and mechanism of action for comparison with the previously characterized, innate inhibitors in the serum and nervous system. The GI inhibitors were found to be active in high titers against RNA and DNA viruses, resistant to proteolysis, glycolysis, lipid extraction and possessed differing mechanisms of action. The mouse intestinal inhibitor prevented virus attachment to cells, and neuramide acted at an early post-attachment stage of virus multiplication. The porcine mucosal inhibitor acted as late as 6 h after initiation of the multiplication cycle. These broadly active GI inhibitors differed from the previously described serum inhibitor (UTIβ) high density lipoproteins (HDL) and the nervous system (NS) inhibitor by being smaller (600 ± 400 kDa) and resistant to proteinase K, glycosidases and organic solvents. The mouse intestinal inhibitor acts similarly to UTIβ and NS inhibitor by preventing attachment of virus to the cells. In comparison, the neuramide and the porcine mucosal inhibitor, like HDL, acted after attachment to the target cells. The innate nonspecific, broadly-active virus inhibitors, based on high titers and location, are considered important initial immune defense mechanisms against viral infections and thus potentially useful in medical applications.

AB - Innate viral inhibitors that are broadly active have been characterized in the serum and the nervous system, but incompletely characterized in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. GI preparations from porcine gastric mucosa, mouse intestine, and in neuramide (a pharmaceutical product), were examined for broad antiviral activity, molecular size and mechanism of action for comparison with the previously characterized, innate inhibitors in the serum and nervous system. The GI inhibitors were found to be active in high titers against RNA and DNA viruses, resistant to proteolysis, glycolysis, lipid extraction and possessed differing mechanisms of action. The mouse intestinal inhibitor prevented virus attachment to cells, and neuramide acted at an early post-attachment stage of virus multiplication. The porcine mucosal inhibitor acted as late as 6 h after initiation of the multiplication cycle. These broadly active GI inhibitors differed from the previously described serum inhibitor (UTIβ) high density lipoproteins (HDL) and the nervous system (NS) inhibitor by being smaller (600 ± 400 kDa) and resistant to proteinase K, glycosidases and organic solvents. The mouse intestinal inhibitor acts similarly to UTIβ and NS inhibitor by preventing attachment of virus to the cells. In comparison, the neuramide and the porcine mucosal inhibitor, like HDL, acted after attachment to the target cells. The innate nonspecific, broadly-active virus inhibitors, based on high titers and location, are considered important initial immune defense mechanisms against viral infections and thus potentially useful in medical applications.

KW - Innate immunity

KW - Intestinal defense

KW - Intestinal virus inhibitors

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0035050565&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0035050565&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/S0166-3542(00)00140-6

DO - 10.1016/S0166-3542(00)00140-6

M3 - Article

C2 - 11428242

AN - SCOPUS:0035050565

VL - 49

SP - 157

EP - 167

JO - Antiviral Research

JF - Antiviral Research

SN - 0166-3542

IS - 3

ER -