Innate immunity and chronic immune activation in HCV/HIV-1 co-infection

Veronica D. Gonzalez, Alan L. Landay, Johan K. Sandberg

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations


Innate immune responses are critical in the defense against viral infections. NK cells, myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and invariant CD1d-restricted NKT cells mediate both effector and regulatory functions in this early immune response. In chronic uncontrolled viral infections such as HCV and HIV-1, these essential immune functions are compromised and can become a double edged sword contributing to the immunopathogenesis of viral disease. In particular, recent findings indicate that innate immune responses play a central role in the chronic immune activation which is a primary driver of HIV-1 disease progression. HCV/HIV-1 co-infection is affecting millions of people and is associated with faster viral disease progression. Here, we review the role of innate immunity and chronic immune activation in HCV and HIV-1 infection, and discuss how mechanisms of innate immunity may influence protection as well as immunopathogenesis in the HCV/HIV-1 co-infected human host.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)12-25
Number of pages14
JournalClinical Immunology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Apr 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Chronic immune activation
  • HCV
  • HIV-1
  • IFNα
  • Innate immunity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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