Children with chronic renal failure (CRF) often fail to attain an adult height consistent with their genetic potential. The growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)/growth plate chondrocyte axis has been intensively studied in these children to determine the basis for this growth failure. Evidence suggests that hepatic GH resistance results in deficient expression of IGF-I. However, serum IGF-I levels are usually normal and it is IGF-I action on target tissues which is inhibited, possibly by the presence of excess high-affinity IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) in CRF serum. In this paper we evaluate the roles of IGFBP-1, -2, and -3 as growth inhibitors in CRF children. The data support a role for each of these IGFBPs as growth inhibitors. Currently, IGFBP-1 meets most criteria expected of a growth inhibitor, but IGFBP-2 and -3 will likely also meet these criteria and may well be important contributors to the growth failure of CRF. Ultimately, many or all of the six IGFBPs may be found to contribute to the excess high-affinity IGF binding sites which are a hallmark of CRF serum and are possible contributors to the growth failure of CRF children.
- Growth failure
- Growth hormone
- Insulin-like growth factor
- Insulin-like growth factor binding proteins
- Renal failure
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health