Objective: To characterize subgroups of preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) and shortterm neonatal outcomes based on the presence and absence of intraamniotic inflammation (IAI) and/or microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC). Methods: One hundred and sixty-six Caucasian women with singleton pregnancies were included in this study. Amniotic fluid samples were obtained by transabdominal amniocentesis (n=166) and were assayed for interleukin-6 levels by a lateral flow immunoassay. The presence of Ureaplasma species, Mycoplasma hominis, Chlamydia trachomatis, and 16S rRNA was evaluated in the amniotic fluid. IAI was defined as amniotic fluid IL-6 values, measured by a point of care test, higher than 745 pg/mL. Results: Microbial-associated IAI (IAI with MIAC) and sterile intraamniotic inflammation (IAI alone) were found in 21%and 4%, respectively, of women with PPROM. Women with microbialassociated IAI had higher microbial loads of Ureaplasma species in the amniotic fluid than women with MIAC alone. No differences in the short-term neonatal morbidity with respect to the presence of microbial-associated IAI, sterile IAI and MIAC alone were found after adjusting for the gestational age at delivery in women with PPROM. Conclusions: Microbial-associated but not sterile intraamniotic inflammation is common in Caucasian women with PPROM. The gestational age at delivery but not the presence of inflammation affects the short-term neonatal morbidity of newborns from PPROM pregnancies.
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