Fungi, and gram-positive and gram-negative organisms were susceptible to iontophoretic killing in simple media. Iontophoresis did not depend on electrode type but did require chloride-containing compounds in the medium. All organisms could be killed efficiently if chloride-containing compounds (for example sodium chloride and calcium chloride) were present in physiological concentrations. Effectiveness of iontophoretic killing could be reduced by nonphysiologically elevated concentrations of other substances (for example creatinine and albumin). The data suggest that iontophoresis should function well in urine, since chloride-containing compounds are present in adequate concentrations even if some naturally occurring compounds, such as creatinine or albumin, are elevated.
- urinary tract infection
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