Keystone perforator island flap as an alternative reconstructive option for partial thickness alar defects up to 1.5centimeters

Epameinondas Kostopoulos, Christos Agiannidis, Petros Konofaos, Ioannis Kotsakis, Grigorios Champsas, Marios Frangoulis, Othon Papadopoulos, Vincent Casoli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

19 Scopus citations


Introduction: The ala is a unique landmark of the nose disposing aesthetic and functional properties. The head and neck area is the main site of appearance of nonmelanoma skin cancer. One third of them are located in the nose with an alar preponderance compared with other nasal subunits. Correction of alar defects is a challenging reconstructive task. The keystone perforator island flap (KPIF) was introduced as an alternative in nasal reconstruction by senior authors. In the present case series, KPIFs' application is introduced into the alar subunit as an alternative, versatile, and reproducible reconstructive option, even for the novice plastic surgeon. Materials and Methods: From April 2014 to September 2015, patients presenting with partial thickness alar defects (≤1.5 cm) secondary to tumor extirpation sustained reconstruction with different types of KPIF. Results: A total of 31 patients (mean age of 72 years) were treated with various types of KPIF. The mean diameter of the defect was 1.14cm. The vast majority of reconstructions concerned a type IV KPIF (18/31 or 58.1%). Sometimes an upward alar retraction was noted. A minimal rim wedge excision was performed (≤0.3mm) using counterbalancing correcting sutures. All flaps survived without any sign of venous congestion, whereas the rim healed uneventfully. The mean follow-up period was 6.5 months. Conclusions: KPIF was introduced as a single-stage alternative reconstructive option for partial thickness alar defects, completing author's experience with this flap into such a challenging and aesthetically critical anatomic area.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1256-1260
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Craniofacial Surgery
Issue number5
StatePublished - Jul 1 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Alar defect
  • keystone perforator island flap
  • nonmelanoma skin cancer
  • pedicle flap

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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