The number of well-characterized hereditary and acquired hypercoagulable conditions is increasing, such that in many thrombophilic patients, the laboratory can now identify a hypercoagulable condition. This review describes the currently known hypercoagulable states that predispose patients to venous, and in some instances, arterial thrombosis. For each condition, the discussion includes the incidence, magnitude of the thrombotic risk in the general population in comparison with symptomatic families, synergistic interactions among the various hypercoagulable conditions, molecular pathogenesis, and interpretation of laboratory test results. In addition, recommendations for laboratory testing are summarized.
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