Langer's lines

To use or not to use

Bradon J. Wilhelmi, Steven J. Blackwell, Linda Phillips

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

60 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Thirty-six differently named guidelines have developed as surgeons have searched for an ideal guide for elective incisions. Many surgeons prefer Langer's lines. These lines were developed by Karl Langer, an anatomy professor, from cadavers in rigor morris. However, Kraissl preferred lines oriented perpendicular to the action of the underlying muscles. Later, Borges described relaxed skin tension lines, which follow furrows formed when the skin is relaxed and are produced by pinching the skin. However, these are only guidelines; there are many contributors to the camouflaging of scars, including wrinkle and contour lines. Borges's and Kraissl's lines (not Langer's) may be the best guides for elective incisions of the face and body, respectively.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)208-214
Number of pages7
JournalPlastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Volume104
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1999

Fingerprint

Skin
Guidelines
Cadaver
Cicatrix
Anatomy
Muscles
Surgeons

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

Cite this

Langer's lines : To use or not to use. / Wilhelmi, Bradon J.; Blackwell, Steven J.; Phillips, Linda.

In: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Vol. 104, No. 1, 07.1999, p. 208-214.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wilhelmi, Bradon J. ; Blackwell, Steven J. ; Phillips, Linda. / Langer's lines : To use or not to use. In: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 1999 ; Vol. 104, No. 1. pp. 208-214.
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