Langer's lines: To use or not to use

Bradon J. Wilhelmi, Steven J. Blackwell, Linda G. Phillips

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

69 Scopus citations

Abstract

Thirty-six differently named guidelines have developed as surgeons have searched for an ideal guide for elective incisions. Many surgeons prefer Langer's lines. These lines were developed by Karl Langer, an anatomy professor, from cadavers in rigor morris. However, Kraissl preferred lines oriented perpendicular to the action of the underlying muscles. Later, Borges described relaxed skin tension lines, which follow furrows formed when the skin is relaxed and are produced by pinching the skin. However, these are only guidelines; there are many contributors to the camouflaging of scars, including wrinkle and contour lines. Borges's and Kraissl's lines (not Langer's) may be the best guides for elective incisions of the face and body, respectively.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)208-214
Number of pages7
JournalPlastic and reconstructive surgery
Volume104
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery

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