Laser initiated decomposition products of indocyanine green (ICG) and carbon black sensitized biological tissues

John M. Kokosa, Andrzej Przyjazny, Kenneth E. Bartels, Massoud Motamedi, Donald J. Hayes, David B. Wallace, Christopher J. Frederickson

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Organic dyes have found increasing use a s sensitizers in laser surgical procedures, due to their high optical absorbances. Little is known, however, about the nature of the degradation products formed when these dyes are irradiated with a laser. Previous work in our laboratories has shown that irradiation of polymeric and biological tissues with CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers produces a host of volatile and semivolatile by-products, some of which are known to be potential carcinogens. This work focuses on the identification of the chemical by-products formed by diode laser (805 nm) and Nd:YAG (1.06 μm) laser irradiation of indocyanine green (ICG) and carbon black based ink sensitized tissues, including bone, tendon and sheep's teeth. Samples were mounted in a 0.5-L Pyrex sample chamber equipped with quartz optical windows, charcoal filtered air inlet and an outlet attached to an appropriate sample trap and a constant flow pump. By-products were analyzed by GC/MS and HPLC. Volatiles identified included benzene and formaldehyde. Semi-volatiles included traces of polycyclic aromatics, arising from the biological matrix and inks, as well as fragments of ICG and the carbon ink components. The significance of these results will be discussed, including the necessity of using appropriate evacuation devices when utilizing lasers for surgical procedures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)205-213
Number of pages9
JournalProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
StatePublished - 1997
EventLaser and Noncoherent Ocular Effects: Epidemiology, Prevention, and Treatment - San Jose, CA, United States
Duration: Feb 10 1997Feb 10 1997


  • Benzene
  • Carbon black
  • Chemical by-products
  • Dyes
  • Formaldehyde
  • Indocyanine green
  • Laser

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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