Lassa fever in Guinea: I. Epidemiology of human disease and clinical observations.

D. G. Bausch, A. H. Demby, M. Coulibaly, J. Kanu, A. Goba, A. Bah, N. Condé, H. L. Wurtzel, K. F. Cavallaro, E. Lloyd, F. B. Baldet, S. D. Cissé, D. Fofona, I. K. Savané, R. T. Tolno, B. Mahy, K. D. Wagoner, T. G. Ksiazek, C. J. Peters, P. E. Rollin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

80 Scopus citations

Abstract

The arenavirus Lassa is found in West Africa, where it sometimes causes a severe illness called Lassa fever. Lassa fever has been seldom investigated outside of a few hyperendemic regions, where the described epidemiology may differ from that in areas of low or moderate incidence of disease. Through a prospective cohort study, we investigated the epidemiology and clinical presentation of Lassa fever in Guinea, where the disease has been infrequently recognized. A surveillance system was established, and suspected cases were enrolled at five Guinean hospitals. Clinical observations were made, and blood was taken for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay testing and isolation of Lassa virus. Lassa fever was confirmed in 22 (7%) of 311 suspected cases. Another 43 (14%) had Lassa IgG antibodies, indicating past exposure. Both sexes and a wide variety of age and ethnic groups were affected. The disease was more frequently found, and the IgG seroprevalence generally higher, in the southeastern forest region. In some areas, there were significant discrepancies between the incidence of Lassa fever and the prevalence of antibody. Clinical presentations between those with Lassa fever and other febrile illnesses were essentially indistinguishable. Clinical predictors of a poor outcome were noted, but again were not specific for Lassa fever. Case-fatality rates for those with Lassa fever and non-Lassa febrile illnesses were 18% and 15%, respectively. Seasonal fluctuation in the incidence of Lassa fever was noted, but occurred similarly with non-Lassa febrile illnesses. Our results, perhaps typical of the scenario throughout much of West Africa, indicate Lassa virus infection to be widespread in certain areas of Guinea, but difficult to distinguish clinically.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)269-281
Number of pages13
JournalVector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.)
Volume1
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2001
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology

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    Bausch, D. G., Demby, A. H., Coulibaly, M., Kanu, J., Goba, A., Bah, A., Condé, N., Wurtzel, H. L., Cavallaro, K. F., Lloyd, E., Baldet, F. B., Cissé, S. D., Fofona, D., Savané, I. K., Tolno, R. T., Mahy, B., Wagoner, K. D., Ksiazek, T. G., Peters, C. J., & Rollin, P. E. (2001). Lassa fever in Guinea: I. Epidemiology of human disease and clinical observations. Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.), 1(4), 269-281. https://doi.org/10.1089/15303660160025903