Leonardo da Vinci's studies of the heart

Mohammadali Mohajel Shoja, Paul S. Agutter, Marios Loukas, Brion Benninger, Ghaffar Shokouhi, Husain Namdar, Kamyar Ghabili, Majid Khalili, R. Shane Tubbs

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Leonardo da Vinci's detailed drawings are justly celebrated; however, less well known are his accounts of the structures and functions of the organs. In this paper, we focus on his illustrations of the heart, his conjectures about heart and blood vessel function, his experiments on model systems to test those conjectures, and his unprecedented conclusions about the way in which the cardiovascular system operates. In particular, da Vinci seems to have been the first to recognize that the heart is a muscle and that systole is the active phase of the pump. He also seems to have understood the functions of the auricles and pulmonary veins, identified the relationship between the cardiac cycle and the pulse, and explained the hemodynamic mechanism of valve opening and closure. He also described anatomical variations and changes in structure and function that occurred with age. We outline da Vinci's varied career and suggest ways in which his personality, experience, skills and intellectual heritage contributed to these advances in understanding. We also consider his influence on later studies in anatomy and physiology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1126-1133
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Cardiology
Volume167
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 20 2013
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Pulmonary Veins
Systole
Cardiovascular System
Blood Vessels
Personality
Pulse
Anatomy
Hemodynamics
Muscles

Keywords

  • Anatomy
  • Circulation
  • Heart
  • History
  • Vessel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Mohajel Shoja, M., Agutter, P. S., Loukas, M., Benninger, B., Shokouhi, G., Namdar, H., ... Tubbs, R. S. (2013). Leonardo da Vinci's studies of the heart. International Journal of Cardiology, 167(4), 1126-1133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.09.078

Leonardo da Vinci's studies of the heart. / Mohajel Shoja, Mohammadali; Agutter, Paul S.; Loukas, Marios; Benninger, Brion; Shokouhi, Ghaffar; Namdar, Husain; Ghabili, Kamyar; Khalili, Majid; Tubbs, R. Shane.

In: International Journal of Cardiology, Vol. 167, No. 4, 20.08.2013, p. 1126-1133.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Mohajel Shoja, M, Agutter, PS, Loukas, M, Benninger, B, Shokouhi, G, Namdar, H, Ghabili, K, Khalili, M & Tubbs, RS 2013, 'Leonardo da Vinci's studies of the heart', International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 167, no. 4, pp. 1126-1133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.09.078
Mohajel Shoja M, Agutter PS, Loukas M, Benninger B, Shokouhi G, Namdar H et al. Leonardo da Vinci's studies of the heart. International Journal of Cardiology. 2013 Aug 20;167(4):1126-1133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2012.09.078
Mohajel Shoja, Mohammadali ; Agutter, Paul S. ; Loukas, Marios ; Benninger, Brion ; Shokouhi, Ghaffar ; Namdar, Husain ; Ghabili, Kamyar ; Khalili, Majid ; Tubbs, R. Shane. / Leonardo da Vinci's studies of the heart. In: International Journal of Cardiology. 2013 ; Vol. 167, No. 4. pp. 1126-1133.
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