Leucine-enriched essential amino acid and carbohydrate ingestion following resistance exercise enhances mTOR signaling and protein synthesis in human muscle

Hans C. Dreyer, Micah J. Drummond, Bart Pennings, Satoshi Fujita, Erin L. Glynn, David L. Chinkes, Shaheen Dhanani, Elena Volpi, Blake B. Rasmussen

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280 Scopus citations


We recently showed that resistance exercise and ingestion of essential amino acids with carbohydrate (EAA+CHO) can independently stimulate mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling and muscle protein synthesis in humans. Providing an EAA+CHO solution postexercise can further increase muscle protein synthesis. Therefore, we hypothesized that enhanced mTOR signaling might be responsible for the greater muscle protein synthesis when leucine-enriched EAA+CHOs are ingested during postexercise recovery. Sixteen male subjects were randomized to one of two groups (control or EAA+CHO). The EAA+CHO group ingested the nutrient solution 1 h after resistance exercise. mTOR signaling was assessed by immunoblotting from repeated muscle biopsy samples. Mixed muscle fractional synthetic rate (FSR) was measured using stable isotope techniques. Muscle protein synthesis and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation during exercise were significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Postexercise FSR was elevated above baseline in both groups at 1 h but was even further elevated in the EAA+CHO group at 2 h postexercise (P < 0.05). Increased FSR was associated with enhanced phosphorylation of mTOR and S6K1 (P < 0.05). Akt phosphorylation was elevated at 1 h and returned to baseline by 2 h in the control group, but it remained elevated in the EAA+CHO group (P < 0.05). 4E-BP1 phosphorylation returned to baseline during recovery in control but became elevated when EAA+CHO was ingested (P < 0.05). eEF2 phosphorylation decreased at 1 and 2 h postexercise to a similar extent in both groups (P < 0.05). Our data suggest that enhanced activation of the mTOR signaling pathway is playing a role in the greater synthesis of muscle proteins when resistance exercise is followed by EAA+CHO ingestion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)E392-E400
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2008



  • Essential amino acids
  • Mammalian target of rapamycin
  • Muscle protein synthesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

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