Ethanol (EtOH) metabolism itself can be a predisposing factor for initiation of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Therefore, a dose dependent study to evaluate liver injury was conducted in hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) deficient (ADH-) and ADH normal (ADH+) deer mice fed 1%, 2% or 3.5% EtOH in the liquid diet daily for 2 months. Blood alcohol concentration (BAC), liver injury marker (alanine amino transferase (ALT)), hepatic lipids and cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) activity were measured. Liver histology, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling and cell death proteins were evaluated. Significantly increased BAC, plasma ALT, hepatic lipids and steatosis were found only in ADH- deer mice fed 3.5% EtOH. Further, a significant ER stress and increased un-spliced X-box binding protein 1 were evident only in ADH- deer mice fed 3.5% EtOH. Both strains fed 3.5% EtOH showed deactivation of AMPK, but increased acetyl Co-A carboxylase 1 and decreased carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A favoring lipogenesis were found only in ADH- deer mice fed 3.5% EtOH. Therefore, irrespective of CYP2E1 overexpression; EtOH dose and hepatic ADH deficiency contribute to EtOH-induced steatosis and liver injury, suggesting a linkage between ER stress, dysregulated hepatic lipid metabolism and AMPK signaling.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology