Demographic changes at the national level emphasize a critical need for multicultural education to be included as part of undergraduate education. This critical review of the literature examines 10 multicultural instruments that are suitable for use in K–12 or higher education institutions. This is a novel literature review in that it is the first such review to investigate the contribution of each instrument to five multicultural components in educational settings (e.g., teaching, efficacy, attitudes, school climate, and personality). The results reveal the need for a “back to the basics” approach in instrument development as more emphasis has recently been placed on advanced analyses and less emphasis on item generation and selection. This trend in instrument development has produced some advantages, but also several limitations to existing instruments used in educational settings. Directions for future research and recommendations are discussed.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cultural Studies