Objectives: Prevalence estimates for several liver cancer risk factors-hepatitis C, hepatitis B, and history of alcohol abuse-are substantially higher in U.S. prison populations than in the general population. However, liver cancer mortality data from these populations are lacking. The primary aims of this study were to examine trends in liver cancer mortality rates from 1992 to 2003 among male prisoners in the Texas Department of Criminal Justice (TDCJ) and to compare these rates to general population rates. Methods: TDCJ data on male decedents (N = 4026) were linked with Texas Vital Statistics multiple-cause-of-death data. Crude average annual liver cancer death rates, average annual percent changes, and standardized mortality ratios were estimated. Results: Crude liver cancer death rates increased by an average annual 6.1% among male prisoners, which was considerably higher than the average annual percent change among similarly aged males in Texas (2.0%) and the U.S. (2.9%). The number of liver cancer deaths among male prisoners was 4.7 (4.0-5.6) and 6.3 (5.3-7.5) times higher than the expected number of deaths estimated using age-specific rates from these reference populations. Conclusions: From 1992 to 2003, liver cancer death rates and rate increases were elevated among Texas male prisoners. Findings support previous recommendations for targeted prevention, screening, and treatment of liver cancer risk factors in prison populations.
- Liver diseases
- Time trend
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health