Insertional Achilles tendinopathy is a common condition that can lead to chronic, debilitating heel pain in athletes and nonathletes alike. Conservative treatment options include activity and shoe wear modification, physical therapy, injections, and extracorporeal shock wave therapy. When nonsurgical treatment fails, surgical treatment is recommended. Although there are options aimed at preserving the tendon and débriding the retrocalcaneal bursa and excess bone formation, others are aimed at detaching the Achilles tendon to perform a thorough débridement and subsequent reattachment. Additional or alternate procedures may include a calcaneal closing wedge osteotomy, gastrocnemius lengthening, and flexor hallucis longus tendon transfer. Recent advances in suture anchor techniques further add to the complexity of available options. This review discusses the relevant anatomy, biomechanics, and pathophysiology as well as the recent available evidence for nonsurgical and surgical management of this condition to guide surgeons in selecting the most appropriate treatment for their patients.
|Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
|Published - May 15 2022
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- General Medicine