Management of Patients With Giant Cell Myocarditis: JACC Review Topic of the Week

Vigyan Bang, Sarju Ganatra, Sachin P. Shah, Sourbha S. Dani, Tomas G. Neilan, Paaladinesh Thavendiranathan, Frederic S. Resnic, Thomas C. Piemonte, Ana Barac, Rushin Patel, Ajay Sharma, Rohan Parikh, Ghulam M. Chaudhry, Mark Vesely, Salim S. Hayek, Monika Leja, David Venesy, Richard Patten, Daniel Lenihan, Anju NohriaLeslie T. Cooper

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

65 Scopus citations


Giant cell myocarditis is a rare, often rapidly progressive and potentially fatal, disease due to T-cell lymphocyte-mediated inflammation of the myocardium that typically affects young and middle-aged adults. Frequently, the disease course is marked by acute heart failure, cardiogenic shock, intractable ventricular arrhythmias, and/or heart block. Diagnosis is often difficult due to its varied clinical presentation and overlap with other cardiovascular conditions. Although cardiac biomarkers and multimodality imaging are often used as initial diagnostic tests, endomyocardial biopsy is required for definitive diagnosis. Combination immunosuppressive therapy, along with guideline-directed medical therapy, has led to a paradigm shift in the management of giant cell myocarditis resulting in an improvement in overall and transplant-free survival. Early diagnosis and prompt management can decrease the risk of transplantation or death, which remain common in patients who present with cardiogenic shock.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1122-1134
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number8
StatePublished - Mar 2 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • cardiogenic shock
  • endomyocardial biopsy
  • giant cell myocarditis
  • heart block
  • heart failure
  • heart transplant
  • immunosuppression
  • left ventricular assist device
  • ventricular arrhythmia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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