Mapping and Ablation of Arrhythmias from Uncommon Sites (Aortic Cusp, Pulmonary Artery, and Left Ventricular Summit)

Santhisri Kodali, Pasquale Santangeli, Fermin C. Garcia

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article


Despite advances in our understanding of the relevant anatomy and mapping and catheter ablation techniques of idiopathic outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias, challenging sites for catheter ablation remain the aortic cusps, pulmonary artery, and notably the left ventricular summit. A systematic approach should be used to direct mapping efforts efficiently between endocardial, coronary venous, and epicardial sites. Foci at the left ventricular summit, particularly intraseptal and at the inaccessible epicardial region, remain difficult to reach and when percutaneous techniques fail, surgical ablation remains an option but with risk of late coronary artery stenosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)665-674
Number of pages10
JournalCardiac Electrophysiology Clinics
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 2019
Externally publishedYes



  • Catheter ablation
  • Left ventricular summit
  • Outflow tract
  • Pulmonary artery

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)

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