The mass of total arachidonate released from phospholipids upon agonist stimulation of the cell and the fraction of released arachidonate which is converted to icosanoids are two parameters of arachidonate metabolism which have been difficult to quantitate because the mass of arachidonate released upon cell stimulation is very low. We have been able to quantitate both of these parameters under a variety of experimental conditions using a unique essential fatty acid-deficient mouse fibrosarcoma cell line (EFD-1), which when repleted with arachidonate, produces prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Because there is no endogenous pool of arachidonate in these cells, the specific activity of exogenous arachidonate does not change upon incorporation into cells, an advantage which permits mass determination of very small quantities of arachidonate directly from radioactive counts. EFD-1 cells were incubated with various concentrations of [14C]arachidonate (for release studies) or unlabeled arachidonate (for PGE2 radioimmunoassays) for 24 h and then stimulated with bradykinin. The time courses for arachidonate release and PGE2 production demonstrated that free arachidonate was rapidly converted to PGE2 with plateau levels attained for both parameters within 240 s of agonist exposure for 2 μM and for 10 μM arachidonate-repleted cultures. There was a linear relationship (r = 0.94) between the mass of arachidonate in the cell and the mass of arachidonate released upon stimulation, up to a cellular concentration of 11 nmol of arachidonate/106 cells, a concentration 10-20% above normal for the parent mouse fibrosarcoma cell line (HSDM1C1) which is not essential fattyacid-deficient. Importantly, the percent of released arachidonate which was converted to PGE2 decreased from 90 to 15% with increasing concentrations of cellular arachidonate, because PGE2 production plateaued at ≥6 nmol of arachidonate/106 cells, but total arachidonate release continued to rise. Finally, we demonstrated that agonist stimulation with thrombin, A23187, and bradykinin all showed the same percent conversion of released arachidonate to PGE2, implying that the determination of this fraction is not a function of the mechanism of release. These studies with our unique cell line indicate that, when the concentration of arachidonate in the cell is not elevated above amounts normally found in our HSDM1C1 cell line, released arachidonate is rapidly and almost quantitatively converted to PGE2, independent of the agonist used to stimulate the cells. However, when the arachidonate concentration in the cell rises slightly above normal, substantial quantities of arachidonate released from phospholipids are not converted to icosanoids and can exit the cell.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||6|
|Journal||Journal of Biological Chemistry|
|State||Published - Jan 1 1988|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cell Biology