Mechanical stress is a pro-inflammatory stimulus in the gut

In vitro, in vivo and ex vivo evidence

You Min Lin, Feng Li, Xuan-Zheng Shi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aims: Inflammatory infiltrates and pro-inflammatory mediators are found increased in obstructive and functional bowel disorders, in which lumen distention is present. However, what caused the low level inflammation is not well known. We tested the hypothesis that lumen distention- associated mechanical stress may induce expression of specific inflammatory mediators in gut smooth muscle. Methods: Static mechanical stretch (18% elongation) was applied in vitro in primary culture of rat colonic circular smooth muscle cells (RCCSMCs) with a Flexercell FX-4000 Tension Plus System. Mechanical distention in vivo was induced in rats with an obstruction band placed in the distal colon. Results: In the primary culture of RCCSMCs, we found that static stretch significantly induced mRNA expression of iNOS, IL-6, and MCP-1 in 3 hours by 6.0(±1.4), 2.5(±0.5), and 2.2(±0.5) fold (n = 6∼8, p<0.05), respectively. However, gene expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-8 was not significantly affected by mechanical stretch. In the in vivo model of colon obstruction, we found that gene expression of iNOS, IL-6, and MCP-1 is also significantly increased in a time-dependent manner in the mechanically distended proximal segment, but not in the sham controls or distal segments. The conditioned medium from the muscle strips of the stretched proximal segment, but not the distal segment or control, significantly induced translocation and phosphorylation of NF-κB p65. This treatment further increased mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators in the naïve cells. However, treatment of the conditioned medium from the proximal segment with neutralizing antibody against rat IL-6 significantly attenuated the activation of NF-κB and gene expression of inflammatory mediators. Conclusions: Our studies demonstrate that mechanical stress induces gene expression of inflammatory mediators i.e. iNOS, IL-6, and MCP-1 in colonic SMC. Further ex vivo study showed that mechanical stress functions as a pro-inflammatory stimulus in the gut.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere106242
JournalPLoS One
Volume9
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Mechanical Stress
mechanical stress
Gene expression
interleukin-6
Muscle
Rats
Interleukin-6
1-methylcyclopropene
digestive system
smooth muscle
Gene Expression
gene expression
intestinal obstruction
rats
Conditioned Culture Medium
myocytes
colon
Smooth Muscle Myocytes
Colon
Messenger RNA

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Mechanical stress is a pro-inflammatory stimulus in the gut : In vitro, in vivo and ex vivo evidence. / Lin, You Min; Li, Feng; Shi, Xuan-Zheng.

In: PLoS One, Vol. 9, No. 9, e106242, 2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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title = "Mechanical stress is a pro-inflammatory stimulus in the gut: In vitro, in vivo and ex vivo evidence",
abstract = "Aims: Inflammatory infiltrates and pro-inflammatory mediators are found increased in obstructive and functional bowel disorders, in which lumen distention is present. However, what caused the low level inflammation is not well known. We tested the hypothesis that lumen distention- associated mechanical stress may induce expression of specific inflammatory mediators in gut smooth muscle. Methods: Static mechanical stretch (18{\%} elongation) was applied in vitro in primary culture of rat colonic circular smooth muscle cells (RCCSMCs) with a Flexercell FX-4000 Tension Plus System. Mechanical distention in vivo was induced in rats with an obstruction band placed in the distal colon. Results: In the primary culture of RCCSMCs, we found that static stretch significantly induced mRNA expression of iNOS, IL-6, and MCP-1 in 3 hours by 6.0(±1.4), 2.5(±0.5), and 2.2(±0.5) fold (n = 6∼8, p<0.05), respectively. However, gene expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-8 was not significantly affected by mechanical stretch. In the in vivo model of colon obstruction, we found that gene expression of iNOS, IL-6, and MCP-1 is also significantly increased in a time-dependent manner in the mechanically distended proximal segment, but not in the sham controls or distal segments. The conditioned medium from the muscle strips of the stretched proximal segment, but not the distal segment or control, significantly induced translocation and phosphorylation of NF-κB p65. This treatment further increased mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators in the na{\"i}ve cells. However, treatment of the conditioned medium from the proximal segment with neutralizing antibody against rat IL-6 significantly attenuated the activation of NF-κB and gene expression of inflammatory mediators. Conclusions: Our studies demonstrate that mechanical stress induces gene expression of inflammatory mediators i.e. iNOS, IL-6, and MCP-1 in colonic SMC. Further ex vivo study showed that mechanical stress functions as a pro-inflammatory stimulus in the gut.",
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N2 - Aims: Inflammatory infiltrates and pro-inflammatory mediators are found increased in obstructive and functional bowel disorders, in which lumen distention is present. However, what caused the low level inflammation is not well known. We tested the hypothesis that lumen distention- associated mechanical stress may induce expression of specific inflammatory mediators in gut smooth muscle. Methods: Static mechanical stretch (18% elongation) was applied in vitro in primary culture of rat colonic circular smooth muscle cells (RCCSMCs) with a Flexercell FX-4000 Tension Plus System. Mechanical distention in vivo was induced in rats with an obstruction band placed in the distal colon. Results: In the primary culture of RCCSMCs, we found that static stretch significantly induced mRNA expression of iNOS, IL-6, and MCP-1 in 3 hours by 6.0(±1.4), 2.5(±0.5), and 2.2(±0.5) fold (n = 6∼8, p<0.05), respectively. However, gene expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-8 was not significantly affected by mechanical stretch. In the in vivo model of colon obstruction, we found that gene expression of iNOS, IL-6, and MCP-1 is also significantly increased in a time-dependent manner in the mechanically distended proximal segment, but not in the sham controls or distal segments. The conditioned medium from the muscle strips of the stretched proximal segment, but not the distal segment or control, significantly induced translocation and phosphorylation of NF-κB p65. This treatment further increased mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators in the naïve cells. However, treatment of the conditioned medium from the proximal segment with neutralizing antibody against rat IL-6 significantly attenuated the activation of NF-κB and gene expression of inflammatory mediators. Conclusions: Our studies demonstrate that mechanical stress induces gene expression of inflammatory mediators i.e. iNOS, IL-6, and MCP-1 in colonic SMC. Further ex vivo study showed that mechanical stress functions as a pro-inflammatory stimulus in the gut.

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