Mechanism for the increase in plasma triacylglycerol concentrations after consumption of short-term, high-carbohydrate diets

B. Mittendorfer, L. S. Sidossis

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

93 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: High-carbohydrate (HC) diets are recommended for lowering the risk of coronary heart disease because they decrease plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations. However, an unfavorable effect of HC diets is an increase in plasma triacylglycerol concentrations. The underlying mechanisms of this effect are still unclear. Objective: We examined the effect of diet composition on VLDL-triacylglycerol metabolism using in vivo isotopically labeled VLDL-triacylglycerol tracers. Design: Six healthy subjects were studied on 2 occasions: After 2 wk of an HC diet (75% carbohydrates, 10% fat, and 15% protein) and after 2 wk of an isoenergetic high-fat (HF) diet (30% carbohydrates, 55% fat, and 15% protein). Results: The plasma VLDL-triacylglycerol concentration was higher after the HC diet than after the HF diet (690 ± 186 compared with 287 ± 104 μmol/L; P < 0.05) because of higher rates of VLDL-triacylglycerol production (0.76 ± 0.12 compared with 0.45 ± 0.15 μmol·kg-1·min-1; P < 0.05) rather than diminished VLDL-triacylglycerol clearance (1.5 ± 0.5 compared with 1.7 ± 0.5 mL ·kg-1·min-1 after the HC diet than after the HF diet, respectively). The increase in VLDL-triacylglycerol production was probably mediated by a decrease in hepatic fatty acid oxidation after the HC diet (0.13 ± 0.02 compared with 0.69 ± 0.24 μmol·kg-1·min-1; P < 0.05), which presumably increased hepatic fatty acid availability for triacylglycerol synthesis. Conclusions: The increase in fasting plasma triacylglycerol concentrations in response to short-term HC diets is due to accelerated VLDL-triacylglycerol secretion. Increased hepatic fatty acid availability, resulting from reduced hepatic fatty acid oxidation, is most likely responsible for the observed increase in VLDL-triacylglycerol secretion.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)892-899
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume73
Issue number5
StatePublished - 2001
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

high carbohydrate diet
Triglycerides
triacylglycerols
Carbohydrates
Diet
High Fat Diet
Fatty Acids
high fat diet
Liver
liver
beta oxidation
Fats
secretion
very low density lipoprotein triglyceride
carbohydrates
fatty acids
LDL Cholesterol
Coronary Disease
lipids
Fasting

Keywords

  • Fatty acid
  • High-carbohydrate diet
  • High-fat diet
  • Liver
  • Stable isotopes
  • Substrate oxidation
  • Triacylglycerol

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science

Cite this

Mechanism for the increase in plasma triacylglycerol concentrations after consumption of short-term, high-carbohydrate diets. / Mittendorfer, B.; Sidossis, L. S.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 73, No. 5, 2001, p. 892-899.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: High-carbohydrate (HC) diets are recommended for lowering the risk of coronary heart disease because they decrease plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations. However, an unfavorable effect of HC diets is an increase in plasma triacylglycerol concentrations. The underlying mechanisms of this effect are still unclear. Objective: We examined the effect of diet composition on VLDL-triacylglycerol metabolism using in vivo isotopically labeled VLDL-triacylglycerol tracers. Design: Six healthy subjects were studied on 2 occasions: After 2 wk of an HC diet (75{\%} carbohydrates, 10{\%} fat, and 15{\%} protein) and after 2 wk of an isoenergetic high-fat (HF) diet (30{\%} carbohydrates, 55{\%} fat, and 15{\%} protein). Results: The plasma VLDL-triacylglycerol concentration was higher after the HC diet than after the HF diet (690 ± 186 compared with 287 ± 104 μmol/L; P < 0.05) because of higher rates of VLDL-triacylglycerol production (0.76 ± 0.12 compared with 0.45 ± 0.15 μmol·kg-1·min-1; P < 0.05) rather than diminished VLDL-triacylglycerol clearance (1.5 ± 0.5 compared with 1.7 ± 0.5 mL ·kg-1·min-1 after the HC diet than after the HF diet, respectively). The increase in VLDL-triacylglycerol production was probably mediated by a decrease in hepatic fatty acid oxidation after the HC diet (0.13 ± 0.02 compared with 0.69 ± 0.24 μmol·kg-1·min-1; P < 0.05), which presumably increased hepatic fatty acid availability for triacylglycerol synthesis. Conclusions: The increase in fasting plasma triacylglycerol concentrations in response to short-term HC diets is due to accelerated VLDL-triacylglycerol secretion. Increased hepatic fatty acid availability, resulting from reduced hepatic fatty acid oxidation, is most likely responsible for the observed increase in VLDL-triacylglycerol secretion.",
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N2 - Background: High-carbohydrate (HC) diets are recommended for lowering the risk of coronary heart disease because they decrease plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations. However, an unfavorable effect of HC diets is an increase in plasma triacylglycerol concentrations. The underlying mechanisms of this effect are still unclear. Objective: We examined the effect of diet composition on VLDL-triacylglycerol metabolism using in vivo isotopically labeled VLDL-triacylglycerol tracers. Design: Six healthy subjects were studied on 2 occasions: After 2 wk of an HC diet (75% carbohydrates, 10% fat, and 15% protein) and after 2 wk of an isoenergetic high-fat (HF) diet (30% carbohydrates, 55% fat, and 15% protein). Results: The plasma VLDL-triacylglycerol concentration was higher after the HC diet than after the HF diet (690 ± 186 compared with 287 ± 104 μmol/L; P < 0.05) because of higher rates of VLDL-triacylglycerol production (0.76 ± 0.12 compared with 0.45 ± 0.15 μmol·kg-1·min-1; P < 0.05) rather than diminished VLDL-triacylglycerol clearance (1.5 ± 0.5 compared with 1.7 ± 0.5 mL ·kg-1·min-1 after the HC diet than after the HF diet, respectively). The increase in VLDL-triacylglycerol production was probably mediated by a decrease in hepatic fatty acid oxidation after the HC diet (0.13 ± 0.02 compared with 0.69 ± 0.24 μmol·kg-1·min-1; P < 0.05), which presumably increased hepatic fatty acid availability for triacylglycerol synthesis. Conclusions: The increase in fasting plasma triacylglycerol concentrations in response to short-term HC diets is due to accelerated VLDL-triacylglycerol secretion. Increased hepatic fatty acid availability, resulting from reduced hepatic fatty acid oxidation, is most likely responsible for the observed increase in VLDL-triacylglycerol secretion.

AB - Background: High-carbohydrate (HC) diets are recommended for lowering the risk of coronary heart disease because they decrease plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations. However, an unfavorable effect of HC diets is an increase in plasma triacylglycerol concentrations. The underlying mechanisms of this effect are still unclear. Objective: We examined the effect of diet composition on VLDL-triacylglycerol metabolism using in vivo isotopically labeled VLDL-triacylglycerol tracers. Design: Six healthy subjects were studied on 2 occasions: After 2 wk of an HC diet (75% carbohydrates, 10% fat, and 15% protein) and after 2 wk of an isoenergetic high-fat (HF) diet (30% carbohydrates, 55% fat, and 15% protein). Results: The plasma VLDL-triacylglycerol concentration was higher after the HC diet than after the HF diet (690 ± 186 compared with 287 ± 104 μmol/L; P < 0.05) because of higher rates of VLDL-triacylglycerol production (0.76 ± 0.12 compared with 0.45 ± 0.15 μmol·kg-1·min-1; P < 0.05) rather than diminished VLDL-triacylglycerol clearance (1.5 ± 0.5 compared with 1.7 ± 0.5 mL ·kg-1·min-1 after the HC diet than after the HF diet, respectively). The increase in VLDL-triacylglycerol production was probably mediated by a decrease in hepatic fatty acid oxidation after the HC diet (0.13 ± 0.02 compared with 0.69 ± 0.24 μmol·kg-1·min-1; P < 0.05), which presumably increased hepatic fatty acid availability for triacylglycerol synthesis. Conclusions: The increase in fasting plasma triacylglycerol concentrations in response to short-term HC diets is due to accelerated VLDL-triacylglycerol secretion. Increased hepatic fatty acid availability, resulting from reduced hepatic fatty acid oxidation, is most likely responsible for the observed increase in VLDL-triacylglycerol secretion.

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KW - High-fat diet

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KW - Stable isotopes

KW - Substrate oxidation

KW - Triacylglycerol

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