Metabolic and inflammatory perturbation of diabetes associated gut dysbiosis in people living with and without HIV infection

Kai Luo, Brandilyn A. Peters, Jee Young Moon, Xiaonan Xue, Zheng Wang, Mykhaylo Usyk, David B. Hanna, Alan L. Landay, Michael F. Schneider, Deborah Gustafson, Kathleen M. Weber, Audrey French, Anjali Sharma, Kathryn Anastos, Tao Wang, Todd Brown, Clary B. Clish, Robert C. Kaplan, Rob Knight, Robert D. BurkQibin Qi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Gut dysbiosis has been linked with both HIV infection and diabetes, but its interplay with metabolic and inflammatory responses in diabetes, particularly in the context of HIV infection, remains unclear. Methods: We first conducted a cross-sectional association analysis to characterize the gut microbial, circulating metabolite, and immune/inflammatory protein features associated with diabetes in up to 493 women (~ 146 with prevalent diabetes with 69.9% HIV +) of the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. Prospective analyses were then conducted to determine associations of identified metabolites with incident diabetes over 12 years of follow-up in 694 participants (391 women from WIHS and 303 men from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study; 166 incident cases were recorded) with and without HIV infection. Mediation analyses were conducted to explore whether gut bacteria–diabetes associations are explained by altered metabolites and proteins. Results: Seven gut bacterial genera were identified to be associated with diabetes (FDR-q < 0.1), with positive associations for Shigella, Escherichia, Megasphaera, and Lactobacillus, and inverse associations for Adlercreutzia, Ruminococcus, and Intestinibacter. Importantly, the associations of most species, especially Adlercreutzia and Ruminococcus, were largely independent of antidiabetic medications use. Meanwhile, 18 proteins and 76 metabolites, including 3 microbially derived metabolites (trimethylamine N-oxide, phenylacetylglutamine (PAGln), imidazolepropionic acid (IMP)), 50 lipids (e.g., diradylglycerols (DGs) and triradylglycerols (TGs)) and 23 non-lipid metabolites, were associated with diabetes (FDR-q < 0.1), with the majority showing positive associations and more than half of them (59/76) associated with incident diabetes. In mediation analyses, several proteins, especially interleukin-18 receptor 1 and osteoprotegerin, IMP and PAGln partially mediate the observed bacterial genera–diabetes associations, particularly for those of Adlercreutzia and Escherichia. Many diabetes-associated metabolites and proteins were altered in HIV, but no effect modification on their associations with diabetes was observed by HIV. Conclusion: Among individuals with and without HIV, multiple gut bacterial genera, blood metabolites, and proinflammatory proteins were associated with diabetes. The observed mediated effects by metabolites and proteins in genera–diabetes associations highlighted the potential involvement of inflammatory and metabolic perturbations in the link between gut dysbiosis and diabetes in the context of HIV infection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number59
JournalGenome Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2024
Externally publishedYes


  • Blood metabolome
  • Diabetes
  • Gut dysbiosis
  • Gut metagenome
  • HIV infection
  • Inflammatory proteome
  • Multi-omics integration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)


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