Metabolic syndrome: Definition and therapeutic implications

Sendil Prasad, Debra A. Ryan, Ma Florence Celzo, Dwight Stapleton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

75 Scopus citations

Abstract

The collection of impaired glucose metabolism, central obesity, elevated blood pressure, and dyslipidemia is identified as metabolic syndrome (MetS). It is estimated that approximately 25% of the world's population has MetS. In the United States, MetS is more common in men and Hispanics, and its incidence increases with age. Metabolic syndrome increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The underlying risk factors include insulin resistance and abdominal obesity. Confusion about MetS exists in part due to the lack of a consensus definition and treatment protocol. Treatment of MetS begins with therapeutic lifestyle changes and then pharmacologic treatment of the syndrome's individual components. Effective interventions include diet modification, exercise, and use of pharmacologic agents to treat risk factors. Weight loss and increasing physical activity significantly improve all aspects of MetS. A diet that includes more fruits, vegetables, whole grains, monounsaturated fats, and low-fat dairy products will benefit most patients with MetS. Physicians can be most effective in advising patients by customizing specific lifestyle recommendations after assessing patients for the presence of risk factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)21-30
Number of pages10
JournalPostgraduate Medicine
Volume124
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2012
Externally publishedYes

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Keywords

  • Blood pressure
  • Glucose metabolism
  • Lifestyle changes
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Obesity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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