Intestinal IgA, which is regulated by gut microbiota, has a crucial role in maintenance of intestinal homeostasis and in protecting the intestines from inflammation. However, the means by which microbiota promotes intestinal IgA responses remain unclear. Emerging evidence suggests that the host can sense gut bacterial metabolites in addition to pathogen-associated molecular patterns and that recognition of these small molecules influences host immune response in the intestines and beyond. We reported here that microbiota metabolite short-chain fatty acid acetate promoted intestinal IgA responses, which was mediated by "metabolite-sensing" GPR43. GPR43 -/- mice demonstrated lower levels of intestinal IgA and IgA + gut bacteria compared with those in wild type (WT) mice. Feeding WT but not GPR43 -/- mice acetate but not butyrate promoted intestinal IgA response independent of T cells. Acetate promoted B-cell IgA class switching and IgA production in vitro in the presence of WT but not GPR43 -/- dendritic cells (DCs). Mechanistically, acetate-induced DC expression of Aldh1a2, which converts Vitamin A into its metabolite retinoic acid (RA). Moreover, blockade of RA signaling inhibited the acetate induction of B-cell IgA production. Our studies thus identified a new pathway by which microbiota promotes intestinal IgA response through its metabolites.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy