Milk protein quantity and quality in low birthweight infants

I. Metabolic responses and effects on growth

N. C R Raiha, K. Heinonen, D. K. Rassin, G. E. Gaull

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

182 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The optimal quantity and quality of protein for low birthweight infants is undefined. In this study, 106 well, appropriate for gestational age, low birthweight infants weighing 2,100 gm or less were grouped in three gestational age categories: T1 = 28 to 30 weeks; T2 = 31 to 33 weeks; T3 = 34 to 36 weeks. Each group was assigned randomly to either banked human milk (BM) or to one of four isocaloric formulas varying in quantity and quality of protein but not in mineral content or in fat content: formula 1 = 1.5 gm of protein per 100 ml, 60 parts bovine whey proteins to 40 parts bovine caseins; formula 2 = 3.0 gm of protein per 100 ml, 60:40; formula 3 = 1.5 gm of protein per 100 ml, 18:82; formula 4 = 3.0 gm of protein per 100 ml, 18:82. Caloric intake was 117 kcal/150 ml/kg/day for the formulas. Human milk was fed at 170 ml/kg/day in order to attain a caloric intake approximately equal to that of the formulas. No significant differences were found in the rate of growth in crown rump length, in femoral length, in head circumference, or in rate of gain in weight from time of regaining birthweight to time of discharge at 2,400 gm. Blood urea nitrogen, urine osmolarity, total serum protein, serum albumin, and serum globulin varied directly with the quantity of protein in the diet: F2, F4>F1,F3>BM. Blood ammonia concentration varied with both quantity and quality of protein in the diet: F2, F3, F4>F1, BM. Metabolic acidosis was more frequent, more severe, and more prolonged in the infants fed the casein predominant formulas (F3, F4) than in those fed the whey protein predominant formulas (F1, F2).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)659-674
Number of pages16
JournalPediatrics
Volume57
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1976
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Milk Proteins
Human Milk
Growth
Proteins
Caseins
Energy Intake
Gestational Age
Crown-Rump Length
Diet
Serum Globulins
Blood Urea Nitrogen
Thigh
Acidosis
Ammonia
Serum Albumin
Osmolar Concentration
Weight Gain
Minerals
Blood Proteins
Fats

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Cite this

Raiha, N. C. R., Heinonen, K., Rassin, D. K., & Gaull, G. E. (1976). Milk protein quantity and quality in low birthweight infants: I. Metabolic responses and effects on growth. Pediatrics, 57(5), 659-674.

Milk protein quantity and quality in low birthweight infants : I. Metabolic responses and effects on growth. / Raiha, N. C R; Heinonen, K.; Rassin, D. K.; Gaull, G. E.

In: Pediatrics, Vol. 57, No. 5, 1976, p. 659-674.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Raiha, NCR, Heinonen, K, Rassin, DK & Gaull, GE 1976, 'Milk protein quantity and quality in low birthweight infants: I. Metabolic responses and effects on growth', Pediatrics, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 659-674.
Raiha, N. C R ; Heinonen, K. ; Rassin, D. K. ; Gaull, G. E. / Milk protein quantity and quality in low birthweight infants : I. Metabolic responses and effects on growth. In: Pediatrics. 1976 ; Vol. 57, No. 5. pp. 659-674.
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