Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin scavenges reactive species, reduces oxidative stress, and improves functional recovery after experimental spinal cord injury in rats: Comparison with methylprednisolone

Danxia Liu, Yichu Shan, Lokanatha Valluru, Feng Bao

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Abstract

Background: Substantial experimental evidence supports that reactive species mediate secondary damage after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) by inducing oxidative stress. Removal of reactive species may reduce secondary damage following SCI. This study explored the effectiveness of a catalytic antioxidant - Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP) - in removing reactive oxygen species (ROS), reducing oxidative stress, and improving functional recovery in vivo in a rat impact SCI model. The efficiency of MnTBAP was also compared with that of methylprednisolone - the only drug used clinically in treating acute SCI.Results: In vivo measurements of time courses of ROS production by microdialysis and microcannula sampling in MnTBAP, methylprednisolone, and saline (as vehicle control)-treated SCI rats showed that both agents significantly reduced the production of hydrogen peroxide, but only MnTBAP significantly reduced superoxide elevation after SCI. In vitro experiments further demonstrated that MnTBAP scavenged both of the preceding ROS, whereas methylprednisolone had no effect on either. By counting the immuno-positive neurons in the spinal cord sections immunohistochemically stained with anti-nitrotyrosine and anti-4-hydroxy-nonenal antibodies as the markers of protein nitration and membrane lipid peroxidation, we demonstrated that MnTBAP significantly reduced the numbers of 4-hydroxy-nonenal-positive and nitrotyrosine-positive neurons in the sections at 1.55 to 2.55 mm and 1.1 to 3.1 mm, respectively, rostral to the injury epicenter compared to the vehicle-treated animals. By behavioral tests (open field and inclined plane tests), we demonstrated that at 4 hours post-SCI treatment with MnTBAP and the standard methylprednisolone regimen both significantly increased test scores compared to those produced by vehicle treatment. However, the outcomes for MnTBAP-treated rats were significantly better than those for methylprednisolone-treated animals.Conclusions: This study demonstrated for the first time in vivo and in vitro that MnTBAP significantly reduced the levels of SCI-elevated ROS and that MnTBAP is superior to methylprednisolone in removing ROS. Removal of ROS by MnTBAP significantly reduced protein nitration and membrane lipid peroxidation in neurons. MnTBAP more effectively reduced neurological deficits than did methylprednisolone after SCI - the first most important criterion for assessing SCI treatments. These results support the therapeutic potential of MnTBAP in treating SCI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number23
JournalBMC Neuroscience
Volume14
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2013

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Methylprednisolone
Spinal Cord Injuries
Oxidative Stress
Reactive Oxygen Species
Membrane Lipids
Neurons
manganese(III)-tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin
Lipid Peroxidation
Microdialysis
Superoxides
Hydrogen Peroxide
Spinal Cord
Proteins
Antioxidants

Keywords

  • Antioxidant therapy
  • Behavioral test
  • Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin
  • Oxidative stress
  • Reactive oxygen species
  • Secondary spinal cord injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience
  • Neuroscience(all)

Cite this

@article{c857e3a82be7453e89073225c309e3b8,
title = "Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin scavenges reactive species, reduces oxidative stress, and improves functional recovery after experimental spinal cord injury in rats: Comparison with methylprednisolone",
abstract = "Background: Substantial experimental evidence supports that reactive species mediate secondary damage after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) by inducing oxidative stress. Removal of reactive species may reduce secondary damage following SCI. This study explored the effectiveness of a catalytic antioxidant - Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP) - in removing reactive oxygen species (ROS), reducing oxidative stress, and improving functional recovery in vivo in a rat impact SCI model. The efficiency of MnTBAP was also compared with that of methylprednisolone - the only drug used clinically in treating acute SCI.Results: In vivo measurements of time courses of ROS production by microdialysis and microcannula sampling in MnTBAP, methylprednisolone, and saline (as vehicle control)-treated SCI rats showed that both agents significantly reduced the production of hydrogen peroxide, but only MnTBAP significantly reduced superoxide elevation after SCI. In vitro experiments further demonstrated that MnTBAP scavenged both of the preceding ROS, whereas methylprednisolone had no effect on either. By counting the immuno-positive neurons in the spinal cord sections immunohistochemically stained with anti-nitrotyrosine and anti-4-hydroxy-nonenal antibodies as the markers of protein nitration and membrane lipid peroxidation, we demonstrated that MnTBAP significantly reduced the numbers of 4-hydroxy-nonenal-positive and nitrotyrosine-positive neurons in the sections at 1.55 to 2.55 mm and 1.1 to 3.1 mm, respectively, rostral to the injury epicenter compared to the vehicle-treated animals. By behavioral tests (open field and inclined plane tests), we demonstrated that at 4 hours post-SCI treatment with MnTBAP and the standard methylprednisolone regimen both significantly increased test scores compared to those produced by vehicle treatment. However, the outcomes for MnTBAP-treated rats were significantly better than those for methylprednisolone-treated animals.Conclusions: This study demonstrated for the first time in vivo and in vitro that MnTBAP significantly reduced the levels of SCI-elevated ROS and that MnTBAP is superior to methylprednisolone in removing ROS. Removal of ROS by MnTBAP significantly reduced protein nitration and membrane lipid peroxidation in neurons. MnTBAP more effectively reduced neurological deficits than did methylprednisolone after SCI - the first most important criterion for assessing SCI treatments. These results support the therapeutic potential of MnTBAP in treating SCI.",
keywords = "Antioxidant therapy, Behavioral test, Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin, Oxidative stress, Reactive oxygen species, Secondary spinal cord injury",
author = "Danxia Liu and Yichu Shan and Lokanatha Valluru and Feng Bao",
year = "2013",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1186/1471-2202-14-23",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "14",
journal = "BMC Neuroscience",
issn = "1471-2202",
publisher = "BioMed Central",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin scavenges reactive species, reduces oxidative stress, and improves functional recovery after experimental spinal cord injury in rats

T2 - Comparison with methylprednisolone

AU - Liu, Danxia

AU - Shan, Yichu

AU - Valluru, Lokanatha

AU - Bao, Feng

PY - 2013/3/1

Y1 - 2013/3/1

N2 - Background: Substantial experimental evidence supports that reactive species mediate secondary damage after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) by inducing oxidative stress. Removal of reactive species may reduce secondary damage following SCI. This study explored the effectiveness of a catalytic antioxidant - Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP) - in removing reactive oxygen species (ROS), reducing oxidative stress, and improving functional recovery in vivo in a rat impact SCI model. The efficiency of MnTBAP was also compared with that of methylprednisolone - the only drug used clinically in treating acute SCI.Results: In vivo measurements of time courses of ROS production by microdialysis and microcannula sampling in MnTBAP, methylprednisolone, and saline (as vehicle control)-treated SCI rats showed that both agents significantly reduced the production of hydrogen peroxide, but only MnTBAP significantly reduced superoxide elevation after SCI. In vitro experiments further demonstrated that MnTBAP scavenged both of the preceding ROS, whereas methylprednisolone had no effect on either. By counting the immuno-positive neurons in the spinal cord sections immunohistochemically stained with anti-nitrotyrosine and anti-4-hydroxy-nonenal antibodies as the markers of protein nitration and membrane lipid peroxidation, we demonstrated that MnTBAP significantly reduced the numbers of 4-hydroxy-nonenal-positive and nitrotyrosine-positive neurons in the sections at 1.55 to 2.55 mm and 1.1 to 3.1 mm, respectively, rostral to the injury epicenter compared to the vehicle-treated animals. By behavioral tests (open field and inclined plane tests), we demonstrated that at 4 hours post-SCI treatment with MnTBAP and the standard methylprednisolone regimen both significantly increased test scores compared to those produced by vehicle treatment. However, the outcomes for MnTBAP-treated rats were significantly better than those for methylprednisolone-treated animals.Conclusions: This study demonstrated for the first time in vivo and in vitro that MnTBAP significantly reduced the levels of SCI-elevated ROS and that MnTBAP is superior to methylprednisolone in removing ROS. Removal of ROS by MnTBAP significantly reduced protein nitration and membrane lipid peroxidation in neurons. MnTBAP more effectively reduced neurological deficits than did methylprednisolone after SCI - the first most important criterion for assessing SCI treatments. These results support the therapeutic potential of MnTBAP in treating SCI.

AB - Background: Substantial experimental evidence supports that reactive species mediate secondary damage after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) by inducing oxidative stress. Removal of reactive species may reduce secondary damage following SCI. This study explored the effectiveness of a catalytic antioxidant - Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin (MnTBAP) - in removing reactive oxygen species (ROS), reducing oxidative stress, and improving functional recovery in vivo in a rat impact SCI model. The efficiency of MnTBAP was also compared with that of methylprednisolone - the only drug used clinically in treating acute SCI.Results: In vivo measurements of time courses of ROS production by microdialysis and microcannula sampling in MnTBAP, methylprednisolone, and saline (as vehicle control)-treated SCI rats showed that both agents significantly reduced the production of hydrogen peroxide, but only MnTBAP significantly reduced superoxide elevation after SCI. In vitro experiments further demonstrated that MnTBAP scavenged both of the preceding ROS, whereas methylprednisolone had no effect on either. By counting the immuno-positive neurons in the spinal cord sections immunohistochemically stained with anti-nitrotyrosine and anti-4-hydroxy-nonenal antibodies as the markers of protein nitration and membrane lipid peroxidation, we demonstrated that MnTBAP significantly reduced the numbers of 4-hydroxy-nonenal-positive and nitrotyrosine-positive neurons in the sections at 1.55 to 2.55 mm and 1.1 to 3.1 mm, respectively, rostral to the injury epicenter compared to the vehicle-treated animals. By behavioral tests (open field and inclined plane tests), we demonstrated that at 4 hours post-SCI treatment with MnTBAP and the standard methylprednisolone regimen both significantly increased test scores compared to those produced by vehicle treatment. However, the outcomes for MnTBAP-treated rats were significantly better than those for methylprednisolone-treated animals.Conclusions: This study demonstrated for the first time in vivo and in vitro that MnTBAP significantly reduced the levels of SCI-elevated ROS and that MnTBAP is superior to methylprednisolone in removing ROS. Removal of ROS by MnTBAP significantly reduced protein nitration and membrane lipid peroxidation in neurons. MnTBAP more effectively reduced neurological deficits than did methylprednisolone after SCI - the first most important criterion for assessing SCI treatments. These results support the therapeutic potential of MnTBAP in treating SCI.

KW - Antioxidant therapy

KW - Behavioral test

KW - Mn (III) tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin

KW - Oxidative stress

KW - Reactive oxygen species

KW - Secondary spinal cord injury

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U2 - 10.1186/1471-2202-14-23

DO - 10.1186/1471-2202-14-23

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JO - BMC Neuroscience

JF - BMC Neuroscience

SN - 1471-2202

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