In the United States nearly 2 million people are burned every year; about 100,000 burns are moderate to severe and require hospitalization and about 5,000 deaths occur because of burns. The overall improvement in mortality and outcome of patients with severe burn trauma over the last decades can be attributed to the following: (1) emergency medical treatment with aggressive early resuscitation, (2) respiratory care and treatment of inhalation injury, (3) control of infection, (4) early burn wound excision and grafting, and (5) modulation of the hypermetabolic response to trauma. The authors present the major developments and changes in burn care regimens concerning emergency medical treatment, focusing on the requirement of early fluid resuscitation, criteria for hospital admission, and referral to burn centers. Also discussed are changes in respiratory management of burn patients and therapy of inhalation injury, infection control measurements, early burn wound excision and wound coverage, and the nutritional and pharmacological modulation of the hypermetabolic response to trauma. All these burn therapy regimens need to be continuously reassessed in clinical use and further improved to achieve still better outcome and quality of life for burn victims.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health