Modulation of peroxynitrite- and hypochlorous acid-induced inactivation of α1-antiproteinase by mercaptoethylguanidine

Matthew Whiteman, Csaba Szabo, Barry Halliwell

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

1. Peroxynitrile is a cytotoxic species that can be formed, among other mechanisms, by the rapid reaction of superoxide with nitric oxide. Peroxynitrite formation has been implicated in a wide range of neurodegenerative and chronic inflammatory diseases, as has the formation of hypochlorous acid by myeloperoxidase. 2. There is considerable interest in the development of peroxynitrite scavengers as therapeutic agents. The thiol compound mercaptoethylguanidine has been suggested to fulfil this role since it has recently been shown to be not only a potent inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase but also a scavenger of peroxynitrite. Indeed, it has been shown to be protective in some experimental models of circulatory shock and inflammation at plasma levels in the approximate range 100-300 μM. 3. One protein inactivated by peroxynitrite is the major inhibitor of serine proteinases in human body fluids, α1-antiproteinase. At high (250-1000 μM) concentrations, mercaptoethylguanidine was found to be effective in preventing peroxynitrite-mediated tyrosine nitration and α1-AP inactivation. 4. By contrast, lower concentrations of mercaptoethylguanidine (1-60 μM) enhanced the inactivation of α1-antiproteinase by peroxynitrite. 5. At all concentrations tested (1-1000 μM), mercaptoethylguanidine decreased the inactivation of α1-antiproteinase by hypochlorous acid. 6. We suggest that products of reaction of mercaptoethylguanidine with peroxynitrite or peroxynitrite-derived products could cause damage to α1-antiproteinase, and possibly other proteins in vivo, whereas scavenging of hypochlorous acid by mercaptoethylguanidine could contribute to its anti-inflammatory action in vivo.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1646-1652
Number of pages7
JournalBritish Journal of Pharmacology
Volume126
Issue number7
StatePublished - 1999
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Hypochlorous Acid
Peroxynitrous Acid
Serine Proteinase Inhibitors
2-mercaptoethylguanidine
Transcription Factor AP-1
Body Fluids
Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II
Human Body
Sulfhydryl Compounds
Superoxides
Peroxidase
Tyrosine
Shock
Nitric Oxide
Proteins
Chronic Disease
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Theoretical Models
Inflammation

Keywords

  • Hypochlorous acid
  • Inflammation
  • iNOS
  • Mercaptoethylguanidine
  • Nitric oxide
  • Peroxynitrite

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Modulation of peroxynitrite- and hypochlorous acid-induced inactivation of α1-antiproteinase by mercaptoethylguanidine. / Whiteman, Matthew; Szabo, Csaba; Halliwell, Barry.

In: British Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 126, No. 7, 1999, p. 1646-1652.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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N2 - 1. Peroxynitrile is a cytotoxic species that can be formed, among other mechanisms, by the rapid reaction of superoxide with nitric oxide. Peroxynitrite formation has been implicated in a wide range of neurodegenerative and chronic inflammatory diseases, as has the formation of hypochlorous acid by myeloperoxidase. 2. There is considerable interest in the development of peroxynitrite scavengers as therapeutic agents. The thiol compound mercaptoethylguanidine has been suggested to fulfil this role since it has recently been shown to be not only a potent inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase but also a scavenger of peroxynitrite. Indeed, it has been shown to be protective in some experimental models of circulatory shock and inflammation at plasma levels in the approximate range 100-300 μM. 3. One protein inactivated by peroxynitrite is the major inhibitor of serine proteinases in human body fluids, α1-antiproteinase. At high (250-1000 μM) concentrations, mercaptoethylguanidine was found to be effective in preventing peroxynitrite-mediated tyrosine nitration and α1-AP inactivation. 4. By contrast, lower concentrations of mercaptoethylguanidine (1-60 μM) enhanced the inactivation of α1-antiproteinase by peroxynitrite. 5. At all concentrations tested (1-1000 μM), mercaptoethylguanidine decreased the inactivation of α1-antiproteinase by hypochlorous acid. 6. We suggest that products of reaction of mercaptoethylguanidine with peroxynitrite or peroxynitrite-derived products could cause damage to α1-antiproteinase, and possibly other proteins in vivo, whereas scavenging of hypochlorous acid by mercaptoethylguanidine could contribute to its anti-inflammatory action in vivo.

AB - 1. Peroxynitrile is a cytotoxic species that can be formed, among other mechanisms, by the rapid reaction of superoxide with nitric oxide. Peroxynitrite formation has been implicated in a wide range of neurodegenerative and chronic inflammatory diseases, as has the formation of hypochlorous acid by myeloperoxidase. 2. There is considerable interest in the development of peroxynitrite scavengers as therapeutic agents. The thiol compound mercaptoethylguanidine has been suggested to fulfil this role since it has recently been shown to be not only a potent inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase but also a scavenger of peroxynitrite. Indeed, it has been shown to be protective in some experimental models of circulatory shock and inflammation at plasma levels in the approximate range 100-300 μM. 3. One protein inactivated by peroxynitrite is the major inhibitor of serine proteinases in human body fluids, α1-antiproteinase. At high (250-1000 μM) concentrations, mercaptoethylguanidine was found to be effective in preventing peroxynitrite-mediated tyrosine nitration and α1-AP inactivation. 4. By contrast, lower concentrations of mercaptoethylguanidine (1-60 μM) enhanced the inactivation of α1-antiproteinase by peroxynitrite. 5. At all concentrations tested (1-1000 μM), mercaptoethylguanidine decreased the inactivation of α1-antiproteinase by hypochlorous acid. 6. We suggest that products of reaction of mercaptoethylguanidine with peroxynitrite or peroxynitrite-derived products could cause damage to α1-antiproteinase, and possibly other proteins in vivo, whereas scavenging of hypochlorous acid by mercaptoethylguanidine could contribute to its anti-inflammatory action in vivo.

KW - Hypochlorous acid

KW - Inflammation

KW - iNOS

KW - Mercaptoethylguanidine

KW - Nitric oxide

KW - Peroxynitrite

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