Modulation of TIM-3 expression on NK and T cell subsets in HIV immunological non-responders

Sander De Kivit, Ludwijn J.R. Lempsink, Jill Plants, Jeffrey Martinson, Ali Keshavarzian, Alan L. Landay

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of HIV infection sustains viral suppression and increases CD4+ T cells in HIV patients. However, in 10-25% of subjects, known as immunological non-responders (INRs), HAART does not increase CD4 count. We investigated a potential role for galectin-9 and TIM-3 in INRs as galectin-9 and TIM-3 have been described to modulate NK and T cell function. PBMCs were isolated from healthy controls, HIV immunological responders (IRs, >350CD4+ cells/mm3) and HIV INRs (<350CD4+ cells/mm3) and TIM-3 and galectin-9 expressions on NK cell subsets and CD4+ T cells were assessed. HIV INRs and HIV IRs showed increased galectin-9 expression on CD16-CD56bright and CD16+CD56+ NK cells and CD4+ T cells. Only HIV INRs showed a reduced frequency of TIM-3-expressing CD16+CD56+, CD16+CD56- and CD4+ cells, which correlated with low peripheral CD4 counts. These data suggest that TIM-3 expression may be characteristic for HIV INRs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)28-35
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Immunology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • CD4 T cell
  • Galectin-9
  • HIV
  • Immunological non-responders
  • NK cells
  • TIM-3

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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