Molecular aspects of lens cell differentiation

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

189 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

I have presented a series of observations on macromolecular interactions which occur during the terminal stages of lens cell differentiation. These are summarized in Fig. 2. Other cell types that undergo similar changes are the erythrocyte and skin cells (epidermis) during the process of keratinization. These other cells are also involved in the synthesis of highly specific proteins, and there are indications that molecular alterations similar to those described for the lens may also occur in these cells (26). Thus, elucidation of a specific series of macromolecular interactions such as those described may provide a basis for the biochemical definition of the terminal stages of cellular differentiation. Differentiation of the reticulocyte, for example, involves inactivation of the nucleus, stabilization of mRNA, and possibly a ribosomal breakdown such as I have described here (26). Furthermore, elucidation of the mechanisms of reactions involving the initiation of tissue-specific protein synthesis and subsequent nuclear inactivation, stabilization of mRNA, and breakdown of the ribosomes may provide a basis for defining the mechanisms of terminal cellular differentiation. The lens cell has reached its highest form of cellular differentiation when it has formed the fiber cell. With respect to the mechanism of lens fiber cell formation, we would like to know whether specific biochemical changes such as γ-crystallin synthesis are intimately linked to fiber cell formation - that is, whether γ-crystallins are required to bring about the formation of a fiber cell. The potential for synthesizing γ-crystallins is inherent in the genome of the cell. This part of the genome is nonfunctional in the epithelial cell. Can these genes be activated without bringing about a simultaneous cellular elongation, nuclear inactivation and loss of cellular replication, stabilization of mRNA, and breakdown of the ribosomes? The degree of coupling or uncoupling of tissue-specific-protein synthesis to morphogenesis is an important part of the mechanism of cellular differentiation. We feel that we have now reached the stage where we can begin to answer these questions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)338-346
Number of pages9
JournalScience
Volume156
Issue number3773
StatePublished - 1967
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Lenses
Cell Differentiation
Crystallins
Ribosomes
Messenger RNA
Genome
Proteins
Reticulocytes
Morphogenesis
Epidermis
Erythrocytes
Epithelial Cells
Skin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Molecular aspects of lens cell differentiation. / Papaconstantinou, John.

In: Science, Vol. 156, No. 3773, 1967, p. 338-346.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Papaconstantinou, John. / Molecular aspects of lens cell differentiation. In: Science. 1967 ; Vol. 156, No. 3773. pp. 338-346.
@article{b9f248f069c14cb19b827b7fe29819a0,
title = "Molecular aspects of lens cell differentiation",
abstract = "I have presented a series of observations on macromolecular interactions which occur during the terminal stages of lens cell differentiation. These are summarized in Fig. 2. Other cell types that undergo similar changes are the erythrocyte and skin cells (epidermis) during the process of keratinization. These other cells are also involved in the synthesis of highly specific proteins, and there are indications that molecular alterations similar to those described for the lens may also occur in these cells (26). Thus, elucidation of a specific series of macromolecular interactions such as those described may provide a basis for the biochemical definition of the terminal stages of cellular differentiation. Differentiation of the reticulocyte, for example, involves inactivation of the nucleus, stabilization of mRNA, and possibly a ribosomal breakdown such as I have described here (26). Furthermore, elucidation of the mechanisms of reactions involving the initiation of tissue-specific protein synthesis and subsequent nuclear inactivation, stabilization of mRNA, and breakdown of the ribosomes may provide a basis for defining the mechanisms of terminal cellular differentiation. The lens cell has reached its highest form of cellular differentiation when it has formed the fiber cell. With respect to the mechanism of lens fiber cell formation, we would like to know whether specific biochemical changes such as γ-crystallin synthesis are intimately linked to fiber cell formation - that is, whether γ-crystallins are required to bring about the formation of a fiber cell. The potential for synthesizing γ-crystallins is inherent in the genome of the cell. This part of the genome is nonfunctional in the epithelial cell. Can these genes be activated without bringing about a simultaneous cellular elongation, nuclear inactivation and loss of cellular replication, stabilization of mRNA, and breakdown of the ribosomes? The degree of coupling or uncoupling of tissue-specific-protein synthesis to morphogenesis is an important part of the mechanism of cellular differentiation. We feel that we have now reached the stage where we can begin to answer these questions.",
author = "John Papaconstantinou",
year = "1967",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "156",
pages = "338--346",
journal = "Science",
issn = "0036-8075",
publisher = "American Association for the Advancement of Science",
number = "3773",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Molecular aspects of lens cell differentiation

AU - Papaconstantinou, John

PY - 1967

Y1 - 1967

N2 - I have presented a series of observations on macromolecular interactions which occur during the terminal stages of lens cell differentiation. These are summarized in Fig. 2. Other cell types that undergo similar changes are the erythrocyte and skin cells (epidermis) during the process of keratinization. These other cells are also involved in the synthesis of highly specific proteins, and there are indications that molecular alterations similar to those described for the lens may also occur in these cells (26). Thus, elucidation of a specific series of macromolecular interactions such as those described may provide a basis for the biochemical definition of the terminal stages of cellular differentiation. Differentiation of the reticulocyte, for example, involves inactivation of the nucleus, stabilization of mRNA, and possibly a ribosomal breakdown such as I have described here (26). Furthermore, elucidation of the mechanisms of reactions involving the initiation of tissue-specific protein synthesis and subsequent nuclear inactivation, stabilization of mRNA, and breakdown of the ribosomes may provide a basis for defining the mechanisms of terminal cellular differentiation. The lens cell has reached its highest form of cellular differentiation when it has formed the fiber cell. With respect to the mechanism of lens fiber cell formation, we would like to know whether specific biochemical changes such as γ-crystallin synthesis are intimately linked to fiber cell formation - that is, whether γ-crystallins are required to bring about the formation of a fiber cell. The potential for synthesizing γ-crystallins is inherent in the genome of the cell. This part of the genome is nonfunctional in the epithelial cell. Can these genes be activated without bringing about a simultaneous cellular elongation, nuclear inactivation and loss of cellular replication, stabilization of mRNA, and breakdown of the ribosomes? The degree of coupling or uncoupling of tissue-specific-protein synthesis to morphogenesis is an important part of the mechanism of cellular differentiation. We feel that we have now reached the stage where we can begin to answer these questions.

AB - I have presented a series of observations on macromolecular interactions which occur during the terminal stages of lens cell differentiation. These are summarized in Fig. 2. Other cell types that undergo similar changes are the erythrocyte and skin cells (epidermis) during the process of keratinization. These other cells are also involved in the synthesis of highly specific proteins, and there are indications that molecular alterations similar to those described for the lens may also occur in these cells (26). Thus, elucidation of a specific series of macromolecular interactions such as those described may provide a basis for the biochemical definition of the terminal stages of cellular differentiation. Differentiation of the reticulocyte, for example, involves inactivation of the nucleus, stabilization of mRNA, and possibly a ribosomal breakdown such as I have described here (26). Furthermore, elucidation of the mechanisms of reactions involving the initiation of tissue-specific protein synthesis and subsequent nuclear inactivation, stabilization of mRNA, and breakdown of the ribosomes may provide a basis for defining the mechanisms of terminal cellular differentiation. The lens cell has reached its highest form of cellular differentiation when it has formed the fiber cell. With respect to the mechanism of lens fiber cell formation, we would like to know whether specific biochemical changes such as γ-crystallin synthesis are intimately linked to fiber cell formation - that is, whether γ-crystallins are required to bring about the formation of a fiber cell. The potential for synthesizing γ-crystallins is inherent in the genome of the cell. This part of the genome is nonfunctional in the epithelial cell. Can these genes be activated without bringing about a simultaneous cellular elongation, nuclear inactivation and loss of cellular replication, stabilization of mRNA, and breakdown of the ribosomes? The degree of coupling or uncoupling of tissue-specific-protein synthesis to morphogenesis is an important part of the mechanism of cellular differentiation. We feel that we have now reached the stage where we can begin to answer these questions.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0014212969&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0014212969&partnerID=8YFLogxK

M3 - Article

VL - 156

SP - 338

EP - 346

JO - Science

JF - Science

SN - 0036-8075

IS - 3773

ER -