Monitoring vaginal epithelial thickness changes noninvasively in sheep using optical coherence tomography

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Abstract

Objective: High-resolution optical coherence tomography can be used noninvasively to evaluate vaginal morphologic features, including epithelial thickness, to assess this protective barrier in transmission of sexually transmitted infections and to monitor tissue response to topical medications and hormonal fluctuations. We examined the use of optical coherence tomography to measure epithelial thickness noninvasively before and after topical treatment with a drug that causes epithelial thinning. Study Design: Twelve female sheep were treated with intravaginal placebo (n = 4) or nonoxynol-9 (n = 8). Vaginal optical coherence tomography images were obtained before and 24 hours after treatment. Four sheep in the nonoxynol-9 group were also examined on days 3 and 7. Vaginal biopsies were obtained on the last examination day. Epithelial thickness was measured in optical coherence tomography images and in hematoxylin and eosin-stained histologic sections from biopsies. Statistical analysis was performed using analyses of variance (significance P <.05). Results: Baseline optical coherence tomography epithelial thickness measurements were similar (85 ± 19 μm placebo, 78 ± 20 μm nonoxynol-9; P =.52). Epithelial thinning was significant after nonoxynol-9 (32 ± 22 μm) compared with placebo (80 ± 15 μm) 24 hours after treatment (P <.0001). In the 4 nonoxynol-9-treated sheep followed for 7 days, epithelial thickness returned to baseline by day 3, and increased significantly on day 7. Epithelial thickness measurements from histology were not significantly different than optical coherence tomography (P =.98 nonoxynol-9, P =.93 hydroxyethyl cellulose). Conclusion: Drug-induced changes in the epithelium were clearly detectable using optical coherence tomography imaging. Optical coherence tomography and histology epithelial thickness measurements were similar, validating optical coherence tomography as a noninvasive method for epithelial thickness measurement, providing an important tool for quantitative and longitudinal monitoring of vaginal epithelial changes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Volume208
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2013

Fingerprint

Optical Coherence Tomography
Nonoxynol
Sheep
Placebos
Histology
Biopsy
Hematoxylin
Eosine Yellowish-(YS)
Sexually Transmitted Diseases
Cellulose
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Analysis of Variance
Therapeutics
Epithelium

Keywords

  • noninvasive epithelial thickness measurement
  • nonoxynol-9
  • optical coherence tomography
  • sheep
  • vagina

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology

Cite this

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title = "Monitoring vaginal epithelial thickness changes noninvasively in sheep using optical coherence tomography",
abstract = "Objective: High-resolution optical coherence tomography can be used noninvasively to evaluate vaginal morphologic features, including epithelial thickness, to assess this protective barrier in transmission of sexually transmitted infections and to monitor tissue response to topical medications and hormonal fluctuations. We examined the use of optical coherence tomography to measure epithelial thickness noninvasively before and after topical treatment with a drug that causes epithelial thinning. Study Design: Twelve female sheep were treated with intravaginal placebo (n = 4) or nonoxynol-9 (n = 8). Vaginal optical coherence tomography images were obtained before and 24 hours after treatment. Four sheep in the nonoxynol-9 group were also examined on days 3 and 7. Vaginal biopsies were obtained on the last examination day. Epithelial thickness was measured in optical coherence tomography images and in hematoxylin and eosin-stained histologic sections from biopsies. Statistical analysis was performed using analyses of variance (significance P <.05). Results: Baseline optical coherence tomography epithelial thickness measurements were similar (85 ± 19 μm placebo, 78 ± 20 μm nonoxynol-9; P =.52). Epithelial thinning was significant after nonoxynol-9 (32 ± 22 μm) compared with placebo (80 ± 15 μm) 24 hours after treatment (P <.0001). In the 4 nonoxynol-9-treated sheep followed for 7 days, epithelial thickness returned to baseline by day 3, and increased significantly on day 7. Epithelial thickness measurements from histology were not significantly different than optical coherence tomography (P =.98 nonoxynol-9, P =.93 hydroxyethyl cellulose). Conclusion: Drug-induced changes in the epithelium were clearly detectable using optical coherence tomography imaging. Optical coherence tomography and histology epithelial thickness measurements were similar, validating optical coherence tomography as a noninvasive method for epithelial thickness measurement, providing an important tool for quantitative and longitudinal monitoring of vaginal epithelial changes.",
keywords = "noninvasive epithelial thickness measurement, nonoxynol-9, optical coherence tomography, sheep, vagina",
author = "Kathleen Vincent and Gracie Vargas and Jingna Wei and Nigel Bourne and Massoud Motamedi",
year = "2013",
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doi = "10.1016/j.ajog.2013.01.025",
language = "English (US)",
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journal = "American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology",
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T1 - Monitoring vaginal epithelial thickness changes noninvasively in sheep using optical coherence tomography

AU - Vincent, Kathleen

AU - Vargas, Gracie

AU - Wei, Jingna

AU - Bourne, Nigel

AU - Motamedi, Massoud

PY - 2013/4

Y1 - 2013/4

N2 - Objective: High-resolution optical coherence tomography can be used noninvasively to evaluate vaginal morphologic features, including epithelial thickness, to assess this protective barrier in transmission of sexually transmitted infections and to monitor tissue response to topical medications and hormonal fluctuations. We examined the use of optical coherence tomography to measure epithelial thickness noninvasively before and after topical treatment with a drug that causes epithelial thinning. Study Design: Twelve female sheep were treated with intravaginal placebo (n = 4) or nonoxynol-9 (n = 8). Vaginal optical coherence tomography images were obtained before and 24 hours after treatment. Four sheep in the nonoxynol-9 group were also examined on days 3 and 7. Vaginal biopsies were obtained on the last examination day. Epithelial thickness was measured in optical coherence tomography images and in hematoxylin and eosin-stained histologic sections from biopsies. Statistical analysis was performed using analyses of variance (significance P <.05). Results: Baseline optical coherence tomography epithelial thickness measurements were similar (85 ± 19 μm placebo, 78 ± 20 μm nonoxynol-9; P =.52). Epithelial thinning was significant after nonoxynol-9 (32 ± 22 μm) compared with placebo (80 ± 15 μm) 24 hours after treatment (P <.0001). In the 4 nonoxynol-9-treated sheep followed for 7 days, epithelial thickness returned to baseline by day 3, and increased significantly on day 7. Epithelial thickness measurements from histology were not significantly different than optical coherence tomography (P =.98 nonoxynol-9, P =.93 hydroxyethyl cellulose). Conclusion: Drug-induced changes in the epithelium were clearly detectable using optical coherence tomography imaging. Optical coherence tomography and histology epithelial thickness measurements were similar, validating optical coherence tomography as a noninvasive method for epithelial thickness measurement, providing an important tool for quantitative and longitudinal monitoring of vaginal epithelial changes.

AB - Objective: High-resolution optical coherence tomography can be used noninvasively to evaluate vaginal morphologic features, including epithelial thickness, to assess this protective barrier in transmission of sexually transmitted infections and to monitor tissue response to topical medications and hormonal fluctuations. We examined the use of optical coherence tomography to measure epithelial thickness noninvasively before and after topical treatment with a drug that causes epithelial thinning. Study Design: Twelve female sheep were treated with intravaginal placebo (n = 4) or nonoxynol-9 (n = 8). Vaginal optical coherence tomography images were obtained before and 24 hours after treatment. Four sheep in the nonoxynol-9 group were also examined on days 3 and 7. Vaginal biopsies were obtained on the last examination day. Epithelial thickness was measured in optical coherence tomography images and in hematoxylin and eosin-stained histologic sections from biopsies. Statistical analysis was performed using analyses of variance (significance P <.05). Results: Baseline optical coherence tomography epithelial thickness measurements were similar (85 ± 19 μm placebo, 78 ± 20 μm nonoxynol-9; P =.52). Epithelial thinning was significant after nonoxynol-9 (32 ± 22 μm) compared with placebo (80 ± 15 μm) 24 hours after treatment (P <.0001). In the 4 nonoxynol-9-treated sheep followed for 7 days, epithelial thickness returned to baseline by day 3, and increased significantly on day 7. Epithelial thickness measurements from histology were not significantly different than optical coherence tomography (P =.98 nonoxynol-9, P =.93 hydroxyethyl cellulose). Conclusion: Drug-induced changes in the epithelium were clearly detectable using optical coherence tomography imaging. Optical coherence tomography and histology epithelial thickness measurements were similar, validating optical coherence tomography as a noninvasive method for epithelial thickness measurement, providing an important tool for quantitative and longitudinal monitoring of vaginal epithelial changes.

KW - noninvasive epithelial thickness measurement

KW - nonoxynol-9

KW - optical coherence tomography

KW - sheep

KW - vagina

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