Methods essential for the morphological evaluation of the heart and blood vessels in toxicological studies are reviewed in this chapter. Focus is on tissue analysis rather than isolated cell studies. The elements of an accurate and thorough morphologic examination are defined. Concepts of gross examination and proper tissue fixation for microscopic and other studies are presented. The general methods of microscopic study including routine histology and special histologic and histochemical preparations are reviewed. Immunohistochemical, electron microscopic, and specialized ultrastructural studies are addressed. Throughout the chapter, basic concepts, the importance of careful sample preparation, and inclusion of proper controls are emphasized.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Cardiovascular Toxicology|
|Number of pages||17|
|State||Published - Aug 12 2010|
- Electron microscopy
- Gross examination
ASJC Scopus subject areas