Murein lipoprotein is a critical outer membrane component involved in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium systemic infection

A. A. Fadl, Jian Sha, G. R. Klimpel, Juan Olano, David Niesel, Ashok Chopra

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27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Braun (murein) lipoprotein (Lpp) are major components of the outer membrane of gram-negative enteric bacteria that function as potent stimulators of inflammatory and immune responses. In a previous paper, we provided evidence that two functional copies of the lipoprotein gene (lppA and lppB) located on the chromosome of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium contributed to bacterial virulence. In this study, we characterized lppA and lppB single-knockout (SKO) mutants and compared them with an lpp double-knockout (DKO) mutant using in vitro and in vivo models. Compared to the lpp DKO mutant, which was nonmotile, the motility of the lpp SKO mutants was significantly increased (73 to 77%), although the level of motility did not reach the level of wild-type (WT) S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Likewise, the cytotoxicity was also significantly increased when T84 human intestinal epithelial cells and RAW264.7 murine macrophages were infected with the lpp SKO mutants compared to the cytotoxicity when cells were infected with the lpp DKO mutant. The level of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in polarized T84 cells infected with the lppB SKO mutant was significantly higher (two- to threefold higher), reaching the level in cells infected with WT S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, than the level in host cells infected with the lppA SKO mutant. The lpp DKO mutant induced minimal levels of IL-8. Similarly, sera from mice infected with the lppB SKO mutant contained 4.5- to 10-fold-higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-6; the levels of these cytokines were 1.7- to 3.0-fold greater in the lppA SKO mutant-infected mice than in animals challenged with the lpp DKO mutant. The increased cytokine levels observed with the lppB SKO mutant in mice correlated with greater tissue damage in the livers and spleens of these mice than in the organs of animals infected with the lppA SKO and lpp DKO mutants. Moreover, the lppB SKO mutant-infected mice had increased susceptibility to death. Since the lpp DKO mutant retained intact LPS, we constructed an S. enterica serovar Typhimurium triple-knockout (TKO) mutant in which the lppA and lppB genes were deleted from an existing msbB mutant (msbB encodes an enzyme required for the acylation of lipid A). Compared to the lpp DKO and msbB SKO mutants, the lpp-msbB TKO mutant was unable to induce cytotoxicity and to produce cytokines and chemokines in vitro and in vivo. These studies provided the first evidence of the relative contributions of Lpp and lipid A acylation to Salmonella pathogenesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1081-1096
Number of pages16
JournalInfection and Immunity
Volume73
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 2005

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Salmonella enterica
Peptidoglycan
Lipoproteins
Membranes
Infection
Lipid A
Acylation
Cytokines
Interleukin-8
Lipopolysaccharides
Animal Structures
Enterobacteriaceae
Gram-Negative Bacteria
Chemokines
Salmonella
Genes
Virulence
Interleukin-6
Spleen
Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology

Cite this

@article{12912f9968334aba91d34179b956504d,
title = "Murein lipoprotein is a critical outer membrane component involved in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium systemic infection",
abstract = "Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Braun (murein) lipoprotein (Lpp) are major components of the outer membrane of gram-negative enteric bacteria that function as potent stimulators of inflammatory and immune responses. In a previous paper, we provided evidence that two functional copies of the lipoprotein gene (lppA and lppB) located on the chromosome of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium contributed to bacterial virulence. In this study, we characterized lppA and lppB single-knockout (SKO) mutants and compared them with an lpp double-knockout (DKO) mutant using in vitro and in vivo models. Compared to the lpp DKO mutant, which was nonmotile, the motility of the lpp SKO mutants was significantly increased (73 to 77{\%}), although the level of motility did not reach the level of wild-type (WT) S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Likewise, the cytotoxicity was also significantly increased when T84 human intestinal epithelial cells and RAW264.7 murine macrophages were infected with the lpp SKO mutants compared to the cytotoxicity when cells were infected with the lpp DKO mutant. The level of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in polarized T84 cells infected with the lppB SKO mutant was significantly higher (two- to threefold higher), reaching the level in cells infected with WT S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, than the level in host cells infected with the lppA SKO mutant. The lpp DKO mutant induced minimal levels of IL-8. Similarly, sera from mice infected with the lppB SKO mutant contained 4.5- to 10-fold-higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-6; the levels of these cytokines were 1.7- to 3.0-fold greater in the lppA SKO mutant-infected mice than in animals challenged with the lpp DKO mutant. The increased cytokine levels observed with the lppB SKO mutant in mice correlated with greater tissue damage in the livers and spleens of these mice than in the organs of animals infected with the lppA SKO and lpp DKO mutants. Moreover, the lppB SKO mutant-infected mice had increased susceptibility to death. Since the lpp DKO mutant retained intact LPS, we constructed an S. enterica serovar Typhimurium triple-knockout (TKO) mutant in which the lppA and lppB genes were deleted from an existing msbB mutant (msbB encodes an enzyme required for the acylation of lipid A). Compared to the lpp DKO and msbB SKO mutants, the lpp-msbB TKO mutant was unable to induce cytotoxicity and to produce cytokines and chemokines in vitro and in vivo. These studies provided the first evidence of the relative contributions of Lpp and lipid A acylation to Salmonella pathogenesis.",
author = "Fadl, {A. A.} and Jian Sha and Klimpel, {G. R.} and Juan Olano and David Niesel and Ashok Chopra",
year = "2005",
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doi = "10.1128/IAI.73.2.1081-1096.2005",
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T1 - Murein lipoprotein is a critical outer membrane component involved in Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium systemic infection

AU - Fadl, A. A.

AU - Sha, Jian

AU - Klimpel, G. R.

AU - Olano, Juan

AU - Niesel, David

AU - Chopra, Ashok

PY - 2005/2

Y1 - 2005/2

N2 - Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Braun (murein) lipoprotein (Lpp) are major components of the outer membrane of gram-negative enteric bacteria that function as potent stimulators of inflammatory and immune responses. In a previous paper, we provided evidence that two functional copies of the lipoprotein gene (lppA and lppB) located on the chromosome of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium contributed to bacterial virulence. In this study, we characterized lppA and lppB single-knockout (SKO) mutants and compared them with an lpp double-knockout (DKO) mutant using in vitro and in vivo models. Compared to the lpp DKO mutant, which was nonmotile, the motility of the lpp SKO mutants was significantly increased (73 to 77%), although the level of motility did not reach the level of wild-type (WT) S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Likewise, the cytotoxicity was also significantly increased when T84 human intestinal epithelial cells and RAW264.7 murine macrophages were infected with the lpp SKO mutants compared to the cytotoxicity when cells were infected with the lpp DKO mutant. The level of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in polarized T84 cells infected with the lppB SKO mutant was significantly higher (two- to threefold higher), reaching the level in cells infected with WT S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, than the level in host cells infected with the lppA SKO mutant. The lpp DKO mutant induced minimal levels of IL-8. Similarly, sera from mice infected with the lppB SKO mutant contained 4.5- to 10-fold-higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-6; the levels of these cytokines were 1.7- to 3.0-fold greater in the lppA SKO mutant-infected mice than in animals challenged with the lpp DKO mutant. The increased cytokine levels observed with the lppB SKO mutant in mice correlated with greater tissue damage in the livers and spleens of these mice than in the organs of animals infected with the lppA SKO and lpp DKO mutants. Moreover, the lppB SKO mutant-infected mice had increased susceptibility to death. Since the lpp DKO mutant retained intact LPS, we constructed an S. enterica serovar Typhimurium triple-knockout (TKO) mutant in which the lppA and lppB genes were deleted from an existing msbB mutant (msbB encodes an enzyme required for the acylation of lipid A). Compared to the lpp DKO and msbB SKO mutants, the lpp-msbB TKO mutant was unable to induce cytotoxicity and to produce cytokines and chemokines in vitro and in vivo. These studies provided the first evidence of the relative contributions of Lpp and lipid A acylation to Salmonella pathogenesis.

AB - Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Braun (murein) lipoprotein (Lpp) are major components of the outer membrane of gram-negative enteric bacteria that function as potent stimulators of inflammatory and immune responses. In a previous paper, we provided evidence that two functional copies of the lipoprotein gene (lppA and lppB) located on the chromosome of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium contributed to bacterial virulence. In this study, we characterized lppA and lppB single-knockout (SKO) mutants and compared them with an lpp double-knockout (DKO) mutant using in vitro and in vivo models. Compared to the lpp DKO mutant, which was nonmotile, the motility of the lpp SKO mutants was significantly increased (73 to 77%), although the level of motility did not reach the level of wild-type (WT) S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Likewise, the cytotoxicity was also significantly increased when T84 human intestinal epithelial cells and RAW264.7 murine macrophages were infected with the lpp SKO mutants compared to the cytotoxicity when cells were infected with the lpp DKO mutant. The level of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in polarized T84 cells infected with the lppB SKO mutant was significantly higher (two- to threefold higher), reaching the level in cells infected with WT S. enterica serovar Typhimurium, than the level in host cells infected with the lppA SKO mutant. The lpp DKO mutant induced minimal levels of IL-8. Similarly, sera from mice infected with the lppB SKO mutant contained 4.5- to 10-fold-higher levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-6; the levels of these cytokines were 1.7- to 3.0-fold greater in the lppA SKO mutant-infected mice than in animals challenged with the lpp DKO mutant. The increased cytokine levels observed with the lppB SKO mutant in mice correlated with greater tissue damage in the livers and spleens of these mice than in the organs of animals infected with the lppA SKO and lpp DKO mutants. Moreover, the lppB SKO mutant-infected mice had increased susceptibility to death. Since the lpp DKO mutant retained intact LPS, we constructed an S. enterica serovar Typhimurium triple-knockout (TKO) mutant in which the lppA and lppB genes were deleted from an existing msbB mutant (msbB encodes an enzyme required for the acylation of lipid A). Compared to the lpp DKO and msbB SKO mutants, the lpp-msbB TKO mutant was unable to induce cytotoxicity and to produce cytokines and chemokines in vitro and in vivo. These studies provided the first evidence of the relative contributions of Lpp and lipid A acylation to Salmonella pathogenesis.

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