Mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) replication in actively growing DBT and 17Cl-1 cells resulted in the inhibition of host cellular DNA synthesis and the accumulation of infected cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. UV-irradiated MHV failed to inhibit host cellular DNA synthesis. MHV infection in quiescent 17Cl-1 cells that had been synchronized in the G 0 phase by serum deprivation prevented infected cells from entering the S phase after serum stimulation. MHV replication inhibited hyperphospliorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb), the event that is necessary for cell cycle progression through late G1 and into the S phase. While the amounts of the cellular cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitors p21Cip1, p27Kip1, and p16INK4a did not change in infected cells, MHV infection in asynchronous cultures induced a clear reduction in the amounts of Cdk4 and G1 cyclins (cyclins D1, D2, D3, and E) in both DBT and 17Cl-1 cells and a reduction in Cdk6 levels in 17Cl-1 cells. Infection also resulted in a decrease in Cdk2 activity in both cell lines. MHV infection in quiescent 17Cl-1 cells prevented normal increases in Cdk4, Cdk6, cyclin D1, and cyclin D3 levels after serum stimulation. The amounts of cyclin D2 and cyclin E were not increased significantly after serum stimulation in mock-infected cells, whereas they were decreased in MHV-infected cells, suggesting the possibility that MHV infection may induce cyclin D2 and cyclin E degradation. Our data suggested that a reduction in the amounts of G1 cyclin-Cdk complexes in MHV-infected cells led to a reduction in Cdk activities and insufficient hyperphosphorylation of pRb, resulting in inhibition of the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase.
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