Muscle protein breakdown has a minor role in the protein anabolic response to essential amino acid and carbohydrate intake following resistance exercise

Erin L. Glynn, Christopher S. Fry, Micah J. Drummond, Hans C. Dreyer, Shaheen Dhanani, Elena Volpi, Blake B. Rasmussen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

108 Scopus citations

Abstract

Muscle protein breakdown (MPB) is increased following resistance exercise, but ingestion of carbohydrate during postexercise recovery can decrease MPB with no effect on muscle protein synthesis (MPS). We sought to determine whether a combination of essential amino acids (EAA) with low carbohydrate or high carbohydrate could effectively reduce MPB following resistance exercise and improve muscle protein net balance (NB). We hypothesized that higher levels of carbohydrate and resulting increases in circulating insulin would inhibit MPB and associated signaling, resulting in augmented NB. Thirteen male subjects were assigned to one of two groups receiving equivalent amounts of EAA (∼20 g) but differing carbohydrate levels (low = 30, high = 90 g). Groups ingested nutrients 1 h after an acute bout of leg resistance exercise. Leg phenylalanine kinetics (e.g., MPB, MPS, NB), signaling proteins, and mRNA expression were assessed on successive muscle biopsies using stable isotopic techniques, immunoblotting, and realtime quantitative PCR, respectively. MPB tended to decrease (P < 0.1) and MPS increased (P < 0.05) similarly in both groups following nutrient ingestion. No group differences were observed, but muscle ring finger 1 (MuRF1) protein content and MuRF1 mRNA expression increased following resistance exercise and remained elevated following nutrient ingestion, while autophagy marker (light-chain 3B-II) decreased after nutrient ingestion (P < 0.05). Forkhead box-O3a phosphorylation, total muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx) protein, and MAFbx and caspase-3 mRNA expression were unchanged. We conclude that the enhanced muscle protein anabolic response detected when EAA+carbohydrate are ingested postresistance exercise is primarily due to an increase in MPS with minor changes in MPB, regardless of carbohydrate dose or circulating insulin level.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)R533-R540
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Regulatory Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Volume299
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2010

Keywords

  • Atrogin-1
  • LC3B
  • MuRF1
  • Muscle protein metabolism
  • Muscle proteolysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)

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