Nasal encephaloceles: A review of etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentations, diagnosis, treatment, and complications

Madhuri Tirumandas, Amit Sharma, Ikechi Gbenimacho, Mohammadali Mohajel Shoja, R. Shane Tubbs, W. Jerry Oakes, Marios Loukas

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: Encephaloceles are considered by most to be a type of neural tube defect characterized by a herniation of the brain and meninges through structural weaknesses in the bony structures of the skull. Discussion: Many different types of encephaloceles have been classified according to the location of the bony defect. Basal and frontoethmoidal encephaloceles constitute a nasal subclass of encephaloceles, which are herniations from the skull base and ethmoid bone, respectively. Basal encephaloceles are usually occult and can herniate into nasal structures causing obstruction. Frontoethmoidal encephaloceles usually present as a protrusion that is visible at birth and enlarges during crying. Both of these entities are rare with an incidence ranging from 1 in 5,000 to 1 in 40,000 live births around the world with the majority of cases localized in Southeast Asia. Conclusion: Although cases have been recorded since the sixteenth century, there is still a scarcity of knowledge on the exact causes and factors associated with the development of the disease. Many studies have determined these to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Most cases are nonlife threatening and the preferred method of treatment is surgical removal after diagnosis is confirmed with computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Prognosis is generally positive, especially in the subset of patients with frontoethmoidal encephaloceles.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)739-744
Number of pages6
JournalChild's Nervous System
Volume29
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 2013
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Encephalocele
Nose
Therapeutics
Ethmoid Bone
Meningocele
Crying
Southeastern Asia
Neural Tube Defects
Skull Base
Live Birth
Skull
Tomography
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Parturition
Incidence
Brain

Keywords

  • Basal encephalocele
  • Frontoethmoidal encephalocele
  • Nasal encephalocele
  • Review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Clinical Neurology

Cite this

Tirumandas, M., Sharma, A., Gbenimacho, I., Mohajel Shoja, M., Tubbs, R. S., Oakes, W. J., & Loukas, M. (2013). Nasal encephaloceles: A review of etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentations, diagnosis, treatment, and complications. Child's Nervous System, 29(5), 739-744. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00381-012-1998-z

Nasal encephaloceles : A review of etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentations, diagnosis, treatment, and complications. / Tirumandas, Madhuri; Sharma, Amit; Gbenimacho, Ikechi; Mohajel Shoja, Mohammadali; Tubbs, R. Shane; Oakes, W. Jerry; Loukas, Marios.

In: Child's Nervous System, Vol. 29, No. 5, 01.05.2013, p. 739-744.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Tirumandas, M, Sharma, A, Gbenimacho, I, Mohajel Shoja, M, Tubbs, RS, Oakes, WJ & Loukas, M 2013, 'Nasal encephaloceles: A review of etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentations, diagnosis, treatment, and complications', Child's Nervous System, vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 739-744. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00381-012-1998-z
Tirumandas, Madhuri ; Sharma, Amit ; Gbenimacho, Ikechi ; Mohajel Shoja, Mohammadali ; Tubbs, R. Shane ; Oakes, W. Jerry ; Loukas, Marios. / Nasal encephaloceles : A review of etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentations, diagnosis, treatment, and complications. In: Child's Nervous System. 2013 ; Vol. 29, No. 5. pp. 739-744.
@article{12c67761ce504f11af9cd9e5cb880a43,
title = "Nasal encephaloceles: A review of etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentations, diagnosis, treatment, and complications",
abstract = "Introduction: Encephaloceles are considered by most to be a type of neural tube defect characterized by a herniation of the brain and meninges through structural weaknesses in the bony structures of the skull. Discussion: Many different types of encephaloceles have been classified according to the location of the bony defect. Basal and frontoethmoidal encephaloceles constitute a nasal subclass of encephaloceles, which are herniations from the skull base and ethmoid bone, respectively. Basal encephaloceles are usually occult and can herniate into nasal structures causing obstruction. Frontoethmoidal encephaloceles usually present as a protrusion that is visible at birth and enlarges during crying. Both of these entities are rare with an incidence ranging from 1 in 5,000 to 1 in 40,000 live births around the world with the majority of cases localized in Southeast Asia. Conclusion: Although cases have been recorded since the sixteenth century, there is still a scarcity of knowledge on the exact causes and factors associated with the development of the disease. Many studies have determined these to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Most cases are nonlife threatening and the preferred method of treatment is surgical removal after diagnosis is confirmed with computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Prognosis is generally positive, especially in the subset of patients with frontoethmoidal encephaloceles.",
keywords = "Basal encephalocele, Frontoethmoidal encephalocele, Nasal encephalocele, Review",
author = "Madhuri Tirumandas and Amit Sharma and Ikechi Gbenimacho and {Mohajel Shoja}, Mohammadali and Tubbs, {R. Shane} and Oakes, {W. Jerry} and Marios Loukas",
year = "2013",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/s00381-012-1998-z",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "29",
pages = "739--744",
journal = "Child's Nervous System",
issn = "0256-7040",
publisher = "Springer Verlag",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Nasal encephaloceles

T2 - A review of etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentations, diagnosis, treatment, and complications

AU - Tirumandas, Madhuri

AU - Sharma, Amit

AU - Gbenimacho, Ikechi

AU - Mohajel Shoja, Mohammadali

AU - Tubbs, R. Shane

AU - Oakes, W. Jerry

AU - Loukas, Marios

PY - 2013/5/1

Y1 - 2013/5/1

N2 - Introduction: Encephaloceles are considered by most to be a type of neural tube defect characterized by a herniation of the brain and meninges through structural weaknesses in the bony structures of the skull. Discussion: Many different types of encephaloceles have been classified according to the location of the bony defect. Basal and frontoethmoidal encephaloceles constitute a nasal subclass of encephaloceles, which are herniations from the skull base and ethmoid bone, respectively. Basal encephaloceles are usually occult and can herniate into nasal structures causing obstruction. Frontoethmoidal encephaloceles usually present as a protrusion that is visible at birth and enlarges during crying. Both of these entities are rare with an incidence ranging from 1 in 5,000 to 1 in 40,000 live births around the world with the majority of cases localized in Southeast Asia. Conclusion: Although cases have been recorded since the sixteenth century, there is still a scarcity of knowledge on the exact causes and factors associated with the development of the disease. Many studies have determined these to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Most cases are nonlife threatening and the preferred method of treatment is surgical removal after diagnosis is confirmed with computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Prognosis is generally positive, especially in the subset of patients with frontoethmoidal encephaloceles.

AB - Introduction: Encephaloceles are considered by most to be a type of neural tube defect characterized by a herniation of the brain and meninges through structural weaknesses in the bony structures of the skull. Discussion: Many different types of encephaloceles have been classified according to the location of the bony defect. Basal and frontoethmoidal encephaloceles constitute a nasal subclass of encephaloceles, which are herniations from the skull base and ethmoid bone, respectively. Basal encephaloceles are usually occult and can herniate into nasal structures causing obstruction. Frontoethmoidal encephaloceles usually present as a protrusion that is visible at birth and enlarges during crying. Both of these entities are rare with an incidence ranging from 1 in 5,000 to 1 in 40,000 live births around the world with the majority of cases localized in Southeast Asia. Conclusion: Although cases have been recorded since the sixteenth century, there is still a scarcity of knowledge on the exact causes and factors associated with the development of the disease. Many studies have determined these to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Most cases are nonlife threatening and the preferred method of treatment is surgical removal after diagnosis is confirmed with computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Prognosis is generally positive, especially in the subset of patients with frontoethmoidal encephaloceles.

KW - Basal encephalocele

KW - Frontoethmoidal encephalocele

KW - Nasal encephalocele

KW - Review

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84876686356&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84876686356&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s00381-012-1998-z

DO - 10.1007/s00381-012-1998-z

M3 - Review article

C2 - 23247827

AN - SCOPUS:84876686356

VL - 29

SP - 739

EP - 744

JO - Child's Nervous System

JF - Child's Nervous System

SN - 0256-7040

IS - 5

ER -