Neuroendocrine consequences of traumatic brain injury

Alejandro Munoz, Randall Urban

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article attempts to summarize findings of recent publications addressing the prevalence, effects, and treatment of pituitary hormone deficiency following traumatic brain injury (TBI). RECENT FINDINGS: A number of recent studies of TBI victims offer larger samples and much longer follow-up times. However, the prevalence of pituitary hormone deficiency continues to vary widely, underscoring the influence of patient selection, differences in endocrine testing, and patient's comorbidities and age. Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) continues to be the most frequently detected type of pituitary dysfunction. Several reports show the influence of GHD on functional outcomes of TBI victims beyond what is predicted by trauma severity. Emerging data support the notion growth hormone (GH) replacement as a useful intervention to improve symptomatology and functional outcomes among adequately selected GH-deficient patients recovering from TBI. SUMMARY: Pituitary dysfunction is prevalent following TBI. Pituitary dysfunction seems to influence functional outcomes in some patients recovering from brain injury. Adequately selected patients could benefit from hormonal replacement.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)354-358
Number of pages5
JournalCurrent Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2013


  • growth hormone deficiency
  • growth hormone replacement
  • pituitary dysfunction
  • traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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