Neurosurgery simulation in residency training: Feasibility, cost, and educational benefit

Jaime Gasco, Thomas J. Holbrook, Achal Patel, Adrian Smith, David Paulson, Alan Muns, Sohum Desai, Marc Moisi, Yong Fan Kuo, Bart MacDonald, Juan Ortega-Barnett, Joel T. Patterson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

104 Scopus citations


Background:: The effort required to introduce simulation in neurosurgery academic programs and the benefits perceived by residents have not been systematically assessed. OBJECTIVE:: To create a neurosurgery simulation curriculum encompassing basic and advanced skills, cadaveric dissection, cranial and spine surgery simulation, and endovascular and computerized haptic training. METHODS:: A curriculum with 68 core exercises per academic year was distributed in individualized sets of 30 simulations to 6 neurosurgery residents. The total number of procedures completed during the academic year was set to 180. The curriculum includes 79 simulations with physical models, 57 cadaver dissections, and 44 haptic/computerized sessions. Likert-type evaluations regarding self-perceived performance were completed after each exercise. Subject identification was blinded to junior (postgraduate years 1-3) or senior resident (postgraduate years 4-6). Wilcoxon rank testing was used to detect differences within and between groups. RESULTS:: One hundred eighty procedures and surveys were analyzed. Junior residents reported proficiency improvements in 82% of simulations performed (P < .001). Senior residents reported improvement in 42.5% of simulations (P < .001). Cadaver simulations accrued the highest reported benefit (71.5%; P < .001), followed by physical simulators (63.8%; P < .001) and haptic/computerized (59.1; P < .001). Initial cost is $341 978.00, with $27 876.36 for annual operational expenses. CONCLUSION:: The systematic implementation of a simulation curriculum in a neurosurgery training program is feasible, is favorably regarded, and has a positive impact on trainees of all levels, particularly in junior years. All simulation forms, cadaver, physical, and haptic/computerized, have a role in different stages of learning and should be considered in the development of an educational simulation program. ABBREVIATION:: PPDIS, Physician Performance Diagnostic Inventory Scale

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S39-S45
Issue numberSUPPL. 4
StatePublished - Oct 2013


  • Cost, Education
  • Laboratory
  • Neurosurgery
  • Simulation
  • Training

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Clinical Neurology


Dive into the research topics of 'Neurosurgery simulation in residency training: Feasibility, cost, and educational benefit'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this