Nomenclature- and database-compatible names for the Two Ebola virus variants that emerged in guinea and the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 2014

Jens H. Kuhn, Kristian G. Andersen, Sylvain Baize, Yīmíng Bào, Sina Bavari, Nicolas Berthet, Olga Blinkova, Brister J. Rodney, Anna N. Clawson, Joseph Fair, Martin Gabriel, Robert F. Garry, Stephen K. Gire, Augustine Goba, Jean Paul Gonzalez, Stephan Günther, Christian T. Happi, Peter B. Jahrling, Jimmy Kapetshi, Gary KobingerJeffrey R. Kugelman, Eric M. Leroy, Gael Darren Maganga, Placide K. Mbala, Lina M. Moses, Jean Jacques Muyembe-Tamfum, Magassouba N’Faly, Stuart T. Nichol, Sunday A. Omilabu, Gustavo Palacios, Daniel J. Park, Janusz T. Paweska, Sheli R. Radoshitzky, Cynthia A. Rossi, Pardis C. Sabeti, John S. Schieffelin, Randal J. Schoepp, Rachel Sealfon, Robert Swanepoel, Jonathan S. Towner, Jiro Wada, Nadia Wauquier, Nathan L. Yozwiak, Pierre Formenty

Research output: Contribution to journalLetterpeer-review

74 Scopus citations


In 2014, Ebola virus (EBOV) was identified as the etiological agent of a large and still expanding outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in West Africa and a much more confined EVD outbreak in Middle Africa. Epidemiological and evolutionary analyses confirmed that all cases of both outbreaks are connected to a single introduction each of EBOV into human populations and that both outbreaks are not directly connected. Coding-complete genomic sequence analyses of isolates revealed that the two outbreaks were caused by two novel EBOV variants, and initial clinical observations suggest that neither of them should be considered strains. Here we present consensus decisions on naming for both variants (West Africa: “Makona”, Middle Africa: “Lomela”) and provide database-compatible full, shortened, and abbreviated names that are in line with recently established filovirus sub-species nomenclatures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4760-4799
Number of pages40
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 24 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Ebola
  • Ebola virus
  • Ebolavirus
  • Filovirid
  • Filoviridae
  • Filovirus
  • Genome annotation
  • Lokolia
  • Lomela
  • Makona
  • Mononegavirad
  • Mononegavirales
  • Mononegavirus
  • Virus classification
  • Virus isolate
  • Virus nomenclature
  • Virus strain
  • Virus taxonomy
  • Virus variant

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology


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